Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Learning and Technology

Chapter 2 tag cloud

48 comments

  1. Sophia RIzos · · Reply

    What I found most interesting about chapter 2 was the history and chronology of socio-technological shifts (ie: speech, writing, printing and internet). I have read a LOT of history about early writing and language (its just one of those things that you read about in Greek school for 12 years :P) but learning about how that expanded into knowledge and information for all with Johannes Gutenbuerg made me realize how luck we are to live in an age of information. Like was stated on page 23 “The internet represents a worldwide knowledge transformation on a global scale,” and that makes me think about the idea of elders, and how oral culture has changed so drastically in the last 100 years. I come from a BIG family, and learning from each other is how I grew up, and the idea of learning or discovery only coming from a screen in front of you, doesn’t necessarily agree with me. I think things like wikis or forums, or anything else, are incredibly useful ways of acquiring information, but I suppose I am old fashioned in the sense that I cannot image learning without other people around me to learn from

    1. I don’t think you’re “old-fashioned” in your way of thinking at all! I’m the same way. Human collaboration began with our ancestors hunting and gathering food to survive. Genetically, we’re still very much the same.

      Did they teach you about Plato’s contributions to education? Greeks were the first to found an institute for higher academic learning, oh Plato!

      -Marla Liguori

    2. Hi Sophia, I agree with Marley that your way of thinking is definitely not too “old-fashioned” at all. Sometimes learning with people around can certainly be more effective and a higher quality of education. For example, if I’m taking an online course it may take some time to get a reply to a question I might have. Depending on the class size and the access to instructors, these variables will effect how successful the course is. If there are people around me it is always a better opportunity to ask questions on the spot and have deeper discussions or debates. The internet allows people to get a wide variety of information on different topics, however the depth of information may not be present and of course depending on the subject matter, sometimes a more hands-on approach can be more effective. Everyone has different learning styles, human collaboration is of course our roots of how we have always shared and expanded our knowledge. As a whole, online learning may be more efficient but I think classroom learning can certainly be more interesting and involving rather than reading about a topic on the screen and learning more independently.

      1. Marianna Adamian · ·

        I also really agree with the concept of learning in the presence of others, as well as collaboration. I think that I’ve learned well on my own before, with distance ed courses, but generally, I found this was in the sciences, and not so much in the social sciences. I said something similar in my comments on Chapter 1, but I find that certain subjects lend themselves to online learning, more than others.

        Hands on learning, as Linda B mentioned above, is my preferred method of learning and I wish there was more of it in the educational system today. As Linda mentioned in class, we go from individual to collaborative to individual to collaborative (phew!) through our different phases of education, and it really is a damn shame that this happens. I really felt myself “re-learning how to learn” with each phase. Having practical work experience in the field has really changed the way I think about learning. And I think this is due to the collaboration of most working environments, but also the fact that it’s work and not school (if you know what I’m getting at?).

        My question is: do you feel that working collaboratively (be that speaking out in class, completing group projects, doing presentations) enhances your learning? Since not everyone loves all of the above, I’m curious to know how that impacts the way people learn and retain information.

  2. Marla Liguori, CMNS 453, Chapter 2 Response

    Chapter 2 helped me understand the progression of man from prehistoric times to the 21st century. I’ve lived through the Internet Era, I understand it for the most part. As a society, I find as a society we often forget the past because we are too concerned with the future. I found the mini history lesson in the first half of the chapter insightful. As Linda mentioned, humans share the need to advance, learn, collaborate and create tools which enable our species to survive. This is as true today as it was back then. The term “Two brains are better than one” sums up the chapter for me. As Linda go’s on to talk about the Paradigmatic shifts of humanity, I couldn’t help but wonder whats the next shift after the Internet Age? Something to ponder…

    The 1st shift, Speech, intrigued me the most. I suppose I take being able to speak for granted. Our ancestors developed technologies to assist in personal and communal survival, in this case, the human voice. What I didn’t realize was that Age of Speech is mans greatest accomplishment to date. Anyone agree with me? Most people would be quick to say the Internet is.

    The 2nd shift, Writing marks the Agrarian Revolution” which refers to the transition from communities of hunters/gatherers (who were constantly on the move) to agriculture-based economy/society.

    The 3rd, and the most famous “learning technology” was created by Johannes Guenberg (1398-1439) a German, who developed the movable type and mechanical printing press around 1439. Touching upon what we talked about in class, this Paradigm shift transformed Religion, making bibles more accessible than ever.

    The 4th shift, the Internet. The complexity still baffles me. As I’m typing this blog, I’m connected to 4 social media platforms. I’m creeping on Facebook, tweeting on Twitter, updating my resume on LinkedIn and blogging about our last class. Its honestly remarkable how interconnected and “plugged in” students are these days. Theres an enormous amount of pressure to “know it all” especially given the insurmountable resources we have.

    My question to my classmates is: As civilization continues to advance, as a University student, how you prefer to learn? Good old fashion books? Podcasts? Videos? Student-Professor lectures? Radio? Debates? or The Internet?

    Thank-you!
    Marla

    1. Anneliese Herbosa · · Reply

      Great chapter overview, and that’s a good question you posed. I don’t think I’d be able to narrow down just one method or medium of learning that I prefer, but I do appreciate it when instructors find a way to mix it up and experiment with different tools and environments, both physically in-class and virtually in the digital sphere. I also think it depends largely on the nature of the course content that is being taught. For some classes, the more traditional student-professor lectures or books may very well be the only and best options for conveying key concepts, while others welcome more new and exciting approaches to learning and informed discourse. Needless to say, each student has their own preference depending on what type of learner they are (visual, auditory, tactile, etc.). For me, I quite like when instructors find a way to incorporate audio/visual aids into their lectures, plus moderate discussions that happen in-class (synchronously in real-time) as well as outside the classroom (asynchronously ex. via an online forum).

  3. Qingyang Tang · · Reply

    Chapter 2 tells us the 4 steps in human development: speech, writing, printing and Internet. They are all key shifts in human history. I think the most important is each of the shits makes much more people learning. Speech and writing created human civilization. In some way they determined how human understand the world. Then the 4 steps made human civilization can continue for thousand years.
    Printing and Internet made a time of mass communication. Much more people began to learn how to write and read. It is much different from the time of speech and writing. Printing and Internet make knowledge can spread all over the world much easier than before. People now can get much more knowledge through printing and Internet. Internet makes the knowledge explosion. 20 years ago we can get knowledge though books but we need to spend much time on finding books, but now we just need to search key words on Internet then we can get what we want. We can get knowledge much faster which means we can get much more knowledge in the same time than before. We also think more than before. We can post our thinking on Internet and can discuss about it with many other people.
    Now we have a lot of ways to study and can get much more knowledge than before. But I think as students of 21th century, we need to adapt to new teaching methods, like OCL. We need to think more than before.

  4. Dean Stewart · · Reply

    To summarize chapter 2, I want to discuss the 4 stages of evolutionary human development, regarding information sharing. Beginning with the first step; speech, which actually help to shape and create the human civilization, due to a need for a personal and communal noise that would act in survival. Speech also helped determine how humans would understand the world. The next advancement is writing, which helped with the human civilization expanding the agricultural aspects. Giving the ability to pass on information regarding farming, rather than leaving the humans to continually hunt and depend on that source for nourishment. Writing, in my eyes help separate the rich from the peasants, I know speech was used with the higher class having a different speech but classes really got seperated when writing came into affect. Churches and royalty were able to write and read in a language not accessible to those in a lower class level, therefore leaving them behind the higher classes, and creating a social divide in humanity. The third step and one that can be said to have a very influential force, especially regarding religion, is printing. Gutenberg changed the face of how we were able to get our hands on particular writings, in 1439 the printing press was invented, allowing people to spread their writings (i.e. bibles, news and historical stories). This invention was to help create a mass communication, by spreading the written word to more than one reader/transcript at a time. The ability to spread knowledge and agricultural findings, greatly spread the agricultural realm and took us away from hunting/gathering. With the invention of the internet we opened up to what I call the ultra-mass communication, because we can not only spread news, but also edit, add, respond, and send globally, all within a matter of minutes, creating the term ‘snail mail’ for the original way we sent mail to one another.
    This internet era, creates a ‘know it all’ society because people can now check facts at their fingers tips any place, any time of the day. But are the people getting smarter with this little facts or are we becoming a society that knew a lot about a little to a society that knows a little about a lot? Also, which is a better mind set to have? Is this a good shift?
    This evolutionary response has been inevitable with the human society because of our ability to share and collaborate. There was a scientific study that placed a group of baby moneys in a room, and there was a group of baby humans in the other room. The human baby’s when given a process they were unable to do, would show each other what they can and cannot do, enticing the other human babies to share what they know and collaborate as a group to increase their progression. Where as the baby monkeys would get stuck and look around at the other monkey’s and give up. This is a trait in human nature that has definitely helped the human race advance over the ages, especially with inventing such technologies like; speech, writing, printing and the internet.

  5. The world is a changing phenomena. Chapter 2 discusses the 4 communication paradigms which we have progressed through. The first is speech. We have moved from hunter and gatherer society where speech was first developed. This may have begun as simple grunting to eventual pronunciation of words. The creation of speech is what gives humans meaning to the world and the ability to share their thoughts.

    The 2nd paradigm shift is writing. During the agricultural society, this is where literacy began to grow. Writing progressed from symbols of Egyptian hieroglyphics to the eventual phonetic alphabet in Greece. Writing was originally practiced by people of higher status or the Church. The general public did not have the access to learn how to read or write so this is where a divide in classes and social status really begun to be evident.

    Around 1452 we progressed into a manufacturing and industrial age where the printing press was invented by Gutenberg. The printing press enabled the mass production of books and thus gave access to the general public the books and knowledge that they previously could not attain. This is where literacy became necessary to progressing society and allowed for people to openly share knowledge.

    Shortly after in 1969 in the knowledge age, we have the prevalence of the internet! The speed of our adoptions for new technology has risen dramatically. Technology has become prevalent and necessary in our lives and around the world. The internet allows us to be instantly connected globally and it has allowed for the transmission of information at our fingertips. The significance of the internet is that it enables users to share and build each other’s ideas and ultimately advance our knowledge at a faster rate. We have so much information available on the internet that all subjects including niche interests are covered and what this allows is a virtual environment where anyone find what they are looking for.

    Back on the topic of education, the invention of the internet most certainly transforms our contemporary society as Linda Harasim mentioned, therefore introducing many new opportunities for us to shape our educational practices to support more effective learning. These new technological advances should definitely be used to advantage where the options for learning and learning methods are almost limitless!

  6. Sharon Lee · · Reply

    Chapter two provides a brief historic overview about civil advancement and its link with technology. The way we understand our world has been significantly changed through four paradigmatic shifts including, speech, writing, printing and now the internet. Although the first paradigmatic shift dates back to 40000BC, its impact on society should not be taken for granted. Speech has allowed the sharing and transmitting of information and ideas and literacy enabled the possibility of record keeping. Printing has allowed information to reach a greater audience and has provided a means for mass production. Today, in the “knowledge age”, the internet paradigm holds great potential for our future. It has so far, facilitated the digitization of everyday life and has changed the way we define and understand time and space. These paradigms are important as they alter the way we view our knowledge society and encourage us to question dominant institutional frameworks in place. For example, the idea of OCL questions the effectiveness of the traditional education system.
    Responding to Marla and Marianna’s question on learning, I agree with the idea that collaboration is a key characteristic to human development and that it is natural for people to want to socialize with others. With this said, I believe that the face-to-face learning provides an engaging environment and facilitates discussion in a way that online courses might lack. In terms of technology, I still enjoy having a textbook in front of me to read rather than reading e-books online. I also find debates to be a very useful education technique. Debating about a particular topic or issue highlights both sides of a situation. This allows for a more unbiased approach to discussion topics and considers the possibility of multiple perspectives.

  7. I thought chapter two was interesting in that it highlighted the fact that technology today changes in an instant compared to our history. It took 30,000 years for speech to evolve to writing and another 26,000 for writing to make the jump to print. Nowadays technology barely lasts a year before it has evolved and we are looking for the next big thing. I think this was highlighted in the article Linda Harasim sent on Foursquare trying to take on yelp and google (http://gigaom.com/mobile/foursquares-crowley-wants-to-take-on-yelp-google-and-harry-potter/). In the video Denis Crowly, the CEO and founder of Foursquare, discusses how the original foursquare of four years ago has completely evolved. He also talks about how the market has evolved and now there is a much broader consumer base for smart phones. I think its fascinating how quickly current technology is evolving and the possibilities if it continues to get even quicker.
    In chapter two the beginnings of the internet is referred to as a ‘meeting of minds’. I interpreted this as suggesting that the internet is something that was originally meant to increase knowledge and communication. This again brings up the question we have been asking in class which is: Is this excess and rapid development of technology we are experiencing today making us smarter, or is it having the opposite effect? I dont really know if the constant re-marketing of the latest iphone and related apps is a sign of our societies increasing intelligence and technological savvy, or if it is simply a sign that we are too gullible as consumers to say no to the latest trend.. Obviously there are other examples besides phones but this is the one that comes to mind when I think of rapid technology.

  8. Jon Mezzabarba · · Reply

    Chapter two identifies a few major shifts in the development of humanity and the learning paradigm. It makes me wonder what the next step will be. Perhaps it is the mobility of the Internet. Smart phones have given many the ability to access the Internet and go online that previously would not have been able to afford both a phone and a home Internet connection.

    The Internet, as well as its new increased accessibility play right into the social aspect of learning. Knowledge does not exist in a vacuum but builds upon itself. Such a system can only thrive if knowledge is shared among us. Of course, some learning is done individually, but true progress is made when that information conglomerates and produces a more complete set of applicable information.

  9. Michael Chang · · Reply

    The first communication paradigm was speech. This was significant because it allowed oral history to be passed on and it allowed us to share our meaning of the world to one another. The second was writing, which allowed us to pass on information to others without our requiring our physical presence (however only a small percentage of people were able to read/write). The third paradigm shift is the invention of the printing press, where is gave most people access to information, and also promoted a literate society. This ability of mass communication really pushed our society out of the hunter/gatherer society. The fourth paradigm shift was the Internet. This allowed instant and world wide communication. It allowed people who had access to a computer/internet the ability to search and find information on almost everything, at a speed which previous generations could not have imagined. I feel that this paradigm really changed our perception of what it means to be smart. No longer do we need to memorize trivial facts when we can instantly search up anything we wanted. This also produced a society that is based on collaboration and sharing. While the debate rages on about the effect the internet has on society and whether or not it is a pro/con, one thing is for sure: the speed at which these paradigm shift happen may be a lot quicker than one might suspect, especially compared to the last three (speech, writing, printing)

  10. Abigail Nierves · · Reply

    To quickly summarize, Chapter two discusses the different paradigms within the evolution of humanity in terms of learning. History began when the art of writing has begun; albeit humanity has already communicated and passed on culture and tradition through oral communication. Through writing, dates have been immortalized- per se- because the letters on the paper comes across through space and time. As opposed to oral tradition that can potentially be altered as it passes on from one generation to another. When print came along, it made the passing on of information much faster saving time and energy from its composers. Yet as the internet has developed many years later, it has blurred the boundaries of learning within many individuals; whether online learning is the way of the future, or still the traditional classroom setting.

    From what we were discussing in class, whether the excess and rapid development of the internet is making us more efficient as learners or resulting in otherwise, I feel as though it depending on which side one belongs to. For marketers, or course it would be beneficial to have a sudden surge of information which can ultimately result into earning more money through the people they are able to reach. But on the other side, it leaves no privacy for the people where the information is coming from. Furthermore, these individuals who do not belong to a marketing or business institutions are left and flooded with and influx of unnecessary information. What could they possibly do with all this trivial information?

  11. Oliver Grimard · · Reply

    What I find interesting in chapter 2 is the tremendous amount of progress humanity has made over the last 42,000 years. Without speech, I don’t think we would have progressed as a species because I feel that speech is the catalyst for writing, printing and eventually the advent of the internet.
    However, despite being at the forefront of human innovation, I feel that speech only brought humanity part of the way there. It`s one thing to be able to connect syllables to form words, but it`s something completely different to be able to read and write. Although oral civilizations flourished for a long time, I believe that the written word gave way to some of the most fascinating stories around. For example, take Beowulf – an 8th century story, whose manuscript is almost entirely destroyed, yet English majors continue to explore its themes.
    Fast-forwarding to the present though, what matters is information exchange. The internet makes this really easy and I’m really thankful that the web continues to develop. What I’m most curious about is how our lives will continue to intertwine with the real world and the digital one. How will we learn differently? Scholars have claimed that there is an increased disconnect between humans because of our digital connectivity – how will this change the way we interact with one another?
    Do you talk to more people online in a day than you do face to face? Personally, sometimes that’s the case for me. I feel that the digital front is taking precedence over the tangible one and we’re heading for a new age in human history. So we’ve conquered spoken and written word, we’ve mastered information exchange via print and digital formats; so what’s next?

  12. Tara Newell · · Reply

    Chapter 2 talks about the four main learning shifts in history. It is interesting to see those shifts as we have all of these in our lives today. Not having speech would drastically affect the way people communicate and without it today we would be in trouble. It will be interesting to see if the internet age is known as a huge shift in the future. It has changed the way we communicate it has also opened new ways to communicate that brings people all over the world together.

    With the new internet communication, will this be a good change in our society? Or will the rapidly changing landscape negatively affect our society in a way where we go back to one of these four shifts? There needs to be a way that we adapt to this fast changing communication so we don’t lose what we have gained. This ties in to the different way we educate due to the new technologies. We need to change otherwise we may start going backwards.

  13. marie lavoie · · Reply

    To the best of my understanding, theory of knowledge represents a period in the 21st century that has most notably been impacted with the advent and growth of the Internet. Technological advances and changes have set the stage for new theories of learning which take into account the omnipresence of the internet in our lives and a shift towards building knowledge collaboratively rather than transmitting it in a top-down fashion. It is also an efficient way of understanding how people acquire knowledge and how they have done so since the 19th century. Theory of knowledge in my opinion is well suited to address the changing needs of classrooms in the world of the 21st century. In this way it is important to understand that the methods of pedagogies we once used are probably not relevant to 21st century classrooms.

    Moreover, online collaborative learning has become increasingly present in classroom settings, whether it is blended within traditional classroom settings or through distance education. OCL is not a perfected medium and contains challenges, which from my perspective include getting students to participate and become autonomous learners. The interesting thing about online collaborative learning is the sharing and building of knowledge aspect. Teachers take on a role which mimics that of a moderator in connecting the students with the knowledge community and arming them with the appropriate lingo, current information etc. In this way, students must problem-solve on issues they knew little about but are encouraged to discuss and exchange within group settings. This may in turn yield interesting new conclusions for each student.

  14. Emily Louie · · Reply

    I found chapter two quiet interesting particularly opening with the brief history of our society’s four paradigmatic shifts. Most interesting to me was the development of printing and mass communication (the third paradigm). Linda Harasims example of Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis was a paramount movement only possible through the ultilization of a modern technology. With our shift towards an Internet age, we are curious to see how this new forum will mediate our communication.

    Particularly for online learning, we are seeing changes in our education almost daily. Its interesting to map out the timeline of our innovations and see that we progressing faster and faster – we see Moore’s Law at work. I wonder what the next paradigm shift will be and when. I recall reading an article that at the speed we are innovating new technologies Moores Law will begin to fail and our advances will begin to slow down. What do you think about this predication? Are we running out of ways to innovate? What would this mean for our Knowledge Society?

  15. Anneliese Herbosa · · Reply

    Chapter 2 provided a historical context and overview of the paradigm shifts from speech all the way to the Internet, and discussed the ways in which knowledge was thought of, represented, and transformed across various media among various kinds of people both temporally and geographically. I found this chapter to be especially enlightening as, before delving into the latter part of the 21st century which this course is primarily grounded in, gaining an understanding of how information and knowledge have been reimagined and repurposed through the years is crucial.

    Emphasis on the many technological innovations which facilitate knowledge building and learning both from an individualized perspective and a larger-scale context, pave the way for our deeper understanding of online learning tools, technologies and environments which we will be learning more about in Chapter 6. Chapter 2 left me wondering what the next paradigm shift would be, or if social media would branch off of the fourth paradigm (Internet) and be considered a completely separate or sub-paradigm shift, given its proliferation in recent years, especially in the context of education.

  16. Xiao Yu Peng · · Reply

    The most impressive thing that this chapter draws us is its detailed portrays on the four phrases of human development in history and the significant roles that rapid development of technologies were playing on the transformations of human knowledge system. As a matter of fact, this kind of technological determinism theory that this four phases illustrate in chapter two actually reminds me of how Macluan thinking about communication technologies, “the introduction of new communication technologies will fundamentally reconfigure the society in social, cultural and philosophical dimensions.”
    The invention of press printing technologies and printing books enables the knowledge could be disseminated and delivered in more open and efficient ways, which subsequently collapsed the dominance of clerical rule of medieval- Europe for over thousand years, and eventually impacts the entire power relation and hegemony of its sage deeply. Nowadays, as the introduction and rapid development of another communication technologies, the Internet based technologies, it is believed that another social, culture and philosophical reconfiguration in contemporary world are also happening accordingly. And more importunely, it is believed that this reconfigured transformation in society due to the introduction of advanced information technology will also affect the way of how people producing knowledge, such as the Wikipeidia, the way of how we disseminating knowledge such as the Google, and the way of how we inquiring knowledge, such as the online education system, the Moocs and OCL. Subsequently, I believed this kind of changing landscape in knowledge system that is happening now will also deeply impact the entire power-relationship and power distribution beyond the society in profound ways, which leaded to the research question that we draw again and again in the lecture, “who owns the future?”

  17. Alek Lescan · · Reply

    Chapter two considers the relationship between learning and technology. The chapter begins with the presupposition that we all share the innate need to survive and advance. Communication, learning, collaboration and tools are key to social advancement. Throughout time technological breakthroughs have changed cultural, social and economic conditions. For example, consider the impact speech had on the hunter-gatherer. With the development of speech tribes were able to communicate their thoughts, which made for more efficient hunting and gathering. This in turn led to a healthier tribe that had more time to procreate. The same argument can be made with regards to writing, which developed as a result of the need to record a surplus of food and goods. Printing changed our thinking by creating an environment where ideas could be easily disseminated. In fact, this was the major factor that led to the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution and the Protestant Reformation. The Internet (Web 2.0, blogs, search engines, Moocs) changed how we thought about education, community and society. All of these shifts in human thinking are known as paradigm shifts.

  18. Justin Falletta · · Reply

    Must like how Chapter One focused upon a certain relationship (theory and epistemology), Chapter Two spent time outlining a historical context for certain technologies, and how this effected various means of learning. The innate need for humans to survive had brought about four paradigmatic shifts throughout time: the development of speech, the creation of writing, invention of the printing press, and the establishment of the internet. Without delving into each period individually, each era resembled a certain constructivist epistemology where knowledge, and ways of disseminating this knowledge, could be advanced. After we learned to speak, we learned to record speech; after we learned to print in hard copy, we learned to print online. These developments of technologies were able to fulfill our need to survive because they paralleled the ways in which we actualized new ways to learn and make sense of our world.

    Speech and writing remain to be the foundations for our ability to communicate and collaborate effectively in the fostering of a learning environment. The advent of the printing press and later, the internet, expanded these possibilities on a great scale. With the creation of static web pages, information could be accessible to a wide audience, and with the advent of Web 2.0 and dynamic sharable content, this same information became not only viewable, but also open to interaction and collaboration. Social networks, blogs, search engines and the like further introduced new ways of transforming the means of learning (think of adjunct, mixed-mode, or totally online learning) by allowing the learner to interact with information and multiple potential knowledge sources, rather than a single member of the knowledge community.

  19. bloggingetc · · Reply

    Chapter 2 describes a story (in a sense) of the evolution of our ancestors in adapting new ways of learning and technologies, which have proved to be integral to human development. Communications is a study of relations between us and the world we live in, the ideas we have and how we see ourselves through human conditioning and understanding; in other words, communication is the answer to our differences.

    Much like Chapter 1, Chapter 2 focused on the role that technology plays in human learning and development: “Technology has enabled communication and, link with our most human characteristic of international collaboration, is essential to human learning and development” (p. 16). Chapter 2 was goes in more depth about the concept of history of humanity being that something caused a disruption that caused our ancestors to adapt and move to a new level. Harasim notes that collaboration is the key to our survival and to cultural and human development as well as knowledge, which becomes the basis for human development: “Collaboration is a key characteristic of human development, reflected in all our survival and civilization activities from raising our young to collaboratively gathering food to building spacecraft” (p. 16). These major stages of collaboration in human development are major changes in society, learning, technology and knowledge, which are referred as paradigmatic shifts. Harasim describes four major pragmatic shifts of human development: Speech, Writing, Printing & Mass Communications and lastly, the Internet.

    The end of the chapter mainly focuses on the invention of the Internet and the Web transforming our contemporary society, by introducing opportunities and motivation for altering the conditions of learning. This builds a framework for teaching and learning online, by observing, “how we view learning, and how we can shape our educational practice to better support learning” (p. 29).

  20. Samantha Place · · Reply

    This is Samantha Place. I had to make a wordpress account for another class and for whatever reason it isn’t allowing me to put my name but rather my user name. Sorry!

  21. Alina Khokhlova · · Reply

    Chapter 2 concentrates on steps in human development that are speech, writing, printing, and internet. Linda states that collaboration is a key to human development, that helped us to survive and to adopt to life and life circumstances. Major socio technological shifts happened that include speech (40 000 BCE) , the development of speech helped people to develop civilizations, writing ( 10000 BCE) and its invention and formalization helped to produce state structures and cumulative knowledge growth, printing (CE 1600) machine technology and the printing press interact with the development of global trade and communication. , internet ( CE 2000) development of internet helped people to produce knowledge based economics and the democratization of knowledge production.(p 17)

    So new technologies helped a lot in the development of the knowledge. With the technological shift, and the invention of technology allowed people to communicate and elaborate which in this case help them construct a knowledge. As from chapter 1 Linda says that collaboration helps people to learn better and to build knowledge. We learn from communicating with each other, and internet allowed us to communicate with each other and have access to new information.

  22. Sally Zhang · · Reply

    Chapter two emphasizes on the relationship between learning and technology. The major developments of socio-technological shifts including: speech (40,000 BCE), Writing (10,000 BCE), Printing ( CE 1600) and Internet (CE 2000). These four major developments can be closely tied with the development of learning process.
    Speech is the beginning of the learning process. It allows knowledge to be passed from one generation the next orally. Children can learn from what they’ve been told. Writing is the second phase of learning. It allows knowledge to be written down and passed among more people. This can also be seen as the beginning of “lecture” teaching model that students are learning from lecturer and text books. The third paradigm shift is the invention of printing. It also indicates the beginning of collaborate learning. The invention allows people to follow debates, take part in discussions and learn about matters that concerned them (P.21). The last one is the invention of computer which opens the new learning era for human beings. The last paradigm shift is also the combination of the previous ones, it contains both didactic learning and collaborate learning. It can be considered as the future of learning.
    However, along with the digital time, the challenge for traditional learning institutions is also presented in front of us. How do these learning institutions survive when online learnings comes to play a major part in the future? How do professors deal with their replacement by computers? Is this a positive change in education? All these questions requires further researches.

  23. Jeannie Chong · · Reply

    Chapter 2 provides an overview of communication history and gives us the idea that social media does not come up suddenly in 2004, instead it develops with a long history with 4 paradigm shifts: speech (40,000 BC), writing (10,000 BC), printing (1542) and the Internet (1969). They are very important to understand our human history and how knowledge is developed.

    When the speech was developed, the hunters/gatherers produced recognizable civilization based on informal learning. Then, the writing created numeracy and literacy so that human can pass down and archive huge amount of information. In 1542, Gutenberg invented the printing press, people started to read and more of them got the chance to be educated. In 1969, the Internet, an advanced network technology further improve our lives in many aspects and more and more social media platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter, Flickr, are created to foster our network. Hence, these 4 paradigm shifts not only gives us the history of human civilization, they also change the way we perceive our knowledge society and allow us to be more aware of how we spend our time online.

    Besides, Web 2.0 (collaboration web), a PR term, is discussed to echo the significance of the Web/Internet and the term, “collaborative”. It is because Web 2.0 is about user-generated content, interaction, social communication and collaboration, it acts as a new tool for online education as well.

    In sum, Chapter 2 informs us with the timeline and historical view of what and how technology is invented/ developed and how human applied to those technologies into the daily life.

  24. Amanda Woo · · Reply

    Chapter 2 examines the paradigm shifts that have contributed to the socio-technological advancements of today’s new technologies. Advances through new theories of media have helped to establish new forms of communication including, speech, writing, print and the Internet. The Internet has allowed an instant transmission of information, text and knowledge to people all around the world. In contrast to the printing era where individuals were confined to the printing press as a means to communicate. The web, Web 2.0, social networks, blogs and social objects (YouTube, Wikipedia) have drastically contributed to the ways in which individual facilitate human interaction and communication. Through these technological conventions, the integration of multiple perspectives of global conversation, exchanging and sharing have structured the ways in which we live our lives.

    The web has not only contributed to the success of information sharing and retrieving but helped to build the Online Learning System. Referring to “the use of online communication networks for educational applications such as course delivery, support of educational projects, research, access to resources and group collaboration” (Harasim, 2012, p. 27). Today’s modern society has placed Online Learning as a key factor for the future of education. The question remains what will the future hold for the next paradigm shift? Will online education become an integrated framework for teaching and learning for students of all ages? Chapter 2 places an emphasis on the changing landscape of technology and society’s role in this knowledge society.

    1. Robert Brown · · Reply

      Very Nice summary there Amanda 😉

  25. Jennifer Pollock · · Reply

    Chapter two discusses the four major paradigm shifts humanity has gone through. First came speech, which dramatically shifted the way early humans communicated and lived. It was another 30,000 years before the next communication technology was invented and the resulting paradigmatic shift occurred. This was the use of writing, which because necessary as societies developed trade and it was needed to mark ownership and keep records. And this was how society stayed for thousands of years, until the print press was invented in the west in the fifteenth century. My critique of this discussion in the book is that it ignores that the movable type printing press was in fact invented in China several centuries earlier. The Euro-centric focus at this point in the book is problematic to me. At any rate, the introduction of the printing press revolutionized Europe. With printing, mass media became possible, and allowed many new ideas to spread, such as Martin Luther 95 Theses. Finally, the fourth paradigmatic shift came with the invention of the internet. The internet, as we have seen, has dramatically impacted the way we view knowledge and its spread. We now have access not only to more information than ever before, but also to millions of other minds which enable the establishment of communities of learning. The internet brings us the ability to communicate and collaborate in ways never before dreamed of. Paradigm shift indeed.

  26. Chapter 2 talks about the four major paradigm shifts in social communication. It starts with speech, which began in 40000 BC. This communication allowed the hunters and gatherers to create tools and to collaborate with one another in order to survive. Next came writing in 10000 BC. This transition occurs due to the shift into the agriculture age. No longer were people constantly on the move. Instead, they remained in one place and possessions were gathered. To keep track of all the possessions, the people created writing to keep track of who owned what. Although writing had been around for many years, there were only a few people who were literate and because of that, the people who could read had power and influence. The literate people were mostly religious people and they had the knowledge and with knowledge came power. This knowledge was not spread until the creation of the printing press and the third paradigm shift occurred. With the creation of printing in 1600 people had more reading material and had more reason to learn to read. From this came a shift into no longer needing to rely on the priests and wanting to find our own answers. The final shift came in 2000 with the creation of the Internet. The Internet provided a new network of communication and new ways to create and share knowledge. From the creation of the Internet came the web and web 2.0 and all the different Internet based technologies and companies that we know today.

  27. Candy L. · · Reply

    This chapter outlines succinctly the four major paradigm shifts: Speech, Writing, Printing, and the Internet. With each paradigm shift, humans become more collaborative and find ways of pooling their knowledge together. Internet paradigm shift is described as “the meeting of minds”. With the invention of the web, web 2.0, social networks and other forms of collaborative and interactive mediums come into play rapidly.

    This chapter also talks briefly about the history of Online Learning. It was first invented in the mid 1970s. There’s a few types of Online Learning: Adjunct Mode, Mixed or Blended-Mode, and then “Totally” Online Learning. The Adjunct Mode uses Internet simply to enhance the class activities. The Mixed or Blended Mode of Online Learning is where 50% of class activities is experienced on the Internet. The last type “Totally” Online Learning was developed in 1980s to facilitate collaborative learning methods—OCL.

  28. Robert Brown · · Reply

    Chapter 2, a Historical Overview of Learning and Technology

    Chapter 2 explains how from the early days of mankind, learning and technology have remained hand in hand and essentially interlock with one another. With the four major paradigmatic shifts (speech, writing, printing, and the internet), a story is told about the strides mankind has undergone to lead us to the modern ways we embark and absorb information today.

    Evolutionary biologists state that the difference between humans and other species is our ability to “intentionally participate in collaborative activities” (Page 16). Along with our extra-large brains, and our ability to evolve our language, these differences separate us from the other apes. The book described collaboration as the “key to our survival and to cultural and human development and knowledge” (page 16) and thus this has allowed us to develop major milestones in history known as the paradigmatic shifts.

    There are four turning points, new lifestyles, and improved developments that are historic in our past time. 1) Speech (40,000 BCE) – “While this period is often characterized as the Stone Age and it is true that advanced tool-making based on stone is a key characteristic, most importantly this is the age of speech – the most profound technology that mankind has invented” (page 19). 2) Writing (10,000 BCE) – “the agricultural revolution interacts with the massing of population in fertile regions to produce state structures and cumulative knowledge growth based on the invention of writing and the formalization of learning” (page 19). 3) Printing (CE 1600) – “Arguably, the most famous “learning technology” of the third paradigm was the invention of printing. Gutenbergs printing press revolutionized learning and knowledge transmission in Europe to an unprecedented degree: pamphlets, booklets, and complete books could now be efficiently and cost-effectively produced and disseminated” (page 21), and 4) the Internet (CE 2000) – “advanced information technology interacts with powerful new models of education and training that offer the potential to produce knowledge based economies and the democratization of knowledge production” (page 22).

    Each paradigmatic shift shows the improvements and developments mankind made and how communication effectively changed over the years. Up until the 19th century, communication was very remote and restricted to one’s location. Nowadays, it is natural habit of me to talk to my parents every day in Belgium, whereas in the Speech era or Printing era, one would be lucky to even travel all the way from Canada to Belgium. As time has progress, technological advances have transformed cultural, social and economic conditions. Each era had developed into something more, such as the hunter gather era and the development of speech, hunter parties were allowed to communicate to one another. Writing led to the recording of data and keeping information which has been passed down through history. Printing led each individual to collaborate with one another and communities could be created with the feeling of belonging. The internet has led us to a change in communication and even education, allowing communication to be done at ones doorstep to anyone across the world instantaneously. Essentially, the last paradigmatic shift (the internet) is expressed at its finest in this current moment through blogs, where students are gathering in a public space to express their opinions and educational advances leading to discussions and debates.

    1. Vea Banana · · Reply

      I think it’s really interesting that the amount of time between occurrence of each paradigm shifts becomes closer and closer together as technology progresses. I wouldn’t be surprised if the fifth paradigm shift comes within the next few years.

      I’ve also noticed that each paradigm shift has its own advantages and disadvantages which argues for and against the development of the knowledge society. For example, speech, although fundamental to basic communication, it is not a good method for archiving. It is obvious that each paradigm shift really complements and complete each other (since speech lacks archiving, one must use writing, and to conveniently multiply and archived material, one must use printing). However, with the development of the Internet, the three other paradigm shifts are somewhat neglected and/or replaced. Speech is replaced by online communication like chatting. Instead of writing, we are once again becoming a very visual society through platforms like Pinterest or SnapChat. And finally, printing is starting shift to online or web publishing as suppose to hard copy printing. This raises the question of whether the Internet evolves or devolves us as a knowledge society.

      I think it’s really crucial to realize the impact of the Internet on the three other paradigm shifts because it really shows the magnitude of the power of the Internet. That said, using the Internet as a learning medium could really shape the future of social communication.

  29. Chapter two opens a historical overviews of human development related to communication technologies. There are four diagram shifts of civilization: Speech (40000 BC, happened in hunter-gathered community), Writing (10000 BC, Numeracy and literacy records with the development of agriculture), Printing Press (Since 1543, the church was challenged and scientific methods were used to understand the world) and Internet (Since 1969). However, there is a question rising in this web-made age. Now many scholars hold that the development of social media such as Facebook, blogs, wiki, and twitter creates a more democratic environment where people can freely express themselves and interact on another. Is the invention of social media making a world better? Based on our professor emphasized, we are treated as data instead of citizens because of the commercialization of communication industry. The knowledge is gradually privatized by those social media owner. Social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Google, Twitter work as entry points to internet. Something like bridge, when you use these social media, the bridge will take you to different website or companies. At the gate of these bridges, social media collect data from you and then sell those data to other companies. When you are free to use these social media, in fact, you are giving away your power or personal information to them. That is the way to understand how social medial are private owners, who realize privatization of knowledge.

  30. Maral Bahmanpour · · Reply

    Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Learning and Technology

    Within chapter 2, there is a shift from an introduction to the basic fundamentals of the knowledge age to a more in-depth description about the emergence of learning and technology theories. Since intelligent evolution of man, learning and technology have worked with each other to create what we now see as a society. This chapter presents the four paradigmatic shifts which have enabled this evolution into a more intelligent and knowledgable society. These four paradigms are marked by the creation of speech, written word, the printing press and the internet.
    Exclusively, these paradigms highlight the shift from secluded hunter-gatherer communities into a more civilized and collaborative knowledge-based society. Speech allowed hunter-gatherer communities to communicate and for ideologies to be spread by mouth. Written word promoted the growth of knowledge and enabled a large amount of information to be quickly shared across communities and larger cities. Furthermore, the creation of the printing press which easily disseminated information and ideologies around the world. The internet has completely revolutionized methods of communication, education and has expanded the knowledge society. Users literally have the world at their fingertips. Virtually any information is available on the internet. The internet seems to bring all three prior paradigms together into one complete entity in itself.

    Moreover, a section of the class discussions which correlates with this chapter is the biological evolution of humans. It was mentioned that humans are the only species that have the physical ability to speak and put sounds together as well as participate in collaborative activities together. Collaboration is what primarily separates us from other animals and apes in particular. It is the fundamental key to our survival as a species as well as something that promotes human development and knowledge building.

  31. Stephanie Chicoine · · Reply

    In Chapter Two, Professor Harasim provides an excellent overview of the history of “social media” and human technologies. The chapter begins by enforcing the idea that “intentional collaboration” separates humans from all other forms of life, which is stressed throughout the course. Collaboration can be understood as the key to human development and the catalyst to paradigmatic shifts throughout human history which “led to changes in society, learning, technology and knowledge.” Speech, Writing, Printing, and the Internet are identified as the large paradigmatic shifts that have created new ways of life for human begins on Earth.
    Speech is explained as being learned from observing and imitating the behaviour of others. The human voice developed and speech can be understood as the “most profound technology that mankind has invented.” Oral education has been and still is passed from one generation to the next in order to provide sharing and the transmitting of knowledge.
    Writing is identified as linked to the agricultural revolution and the formalization of learning. With the establishment of stable communities writing evolved as a way to record, count and describe items for archiving. This technology was learned through mimicry and then taught to select groups of people. Writing enabled the communication of knowledge dissemination.
    The Printing Press allowed for large numbers of people to gain knowledge and essentially revolutionized learning and knowledge transmission. New ways of thought could be spread over national borders and therefore, the printing press defied space and time. More people were reading and expanding their knowledge .
    The rise of the Internet allowed for the democratization of knowledge. The evolution of the hypertext allowed for the immediate linking of a variety of ideas within a single text (much like the human mind). Speed and flexibility were linked with the creation and production of knowledge expanding information resources and multiple perspectives. Idea sharing and collaborative knowledge networks were available despite the boundaries of space and time through the Internet which could connective entire learning communities.
    Professor Harasim also explains the involvement of Arpanet in the creation of the Internet , the World Wide Web which was intended to be free to the public, the concept of Web 2.0 or the social Web that would feature user-generated content, Social Networks such as Facebook, Blogs that act as personal journals, Social Objects that are built around sharing and discussion, and Search Engines that act as a tool for “surfing.”
    Finally, the enhanced mode of online education is introduced in the adjunct mode which does not replace traditional techniques. Instead, it only enhances class activities through the use of email, subject assignments and the distribution of course material, grades and quizzes. The Mixed-mode of online learned uses group discussions, seminars, debates and group projects through online portals. Lastly, totally online courses are explained as online collaborative learning approaches to seminars and group discussion.

  32. Megan Heesterman · · Reply

    Chapter two provides historical context for understanding social media and its role in knowledge generation and learning.

    Harasim outlines four major socio-technological shifts that represent technological breakthroughs in human progress, these are: Speech (40,000 BCE), writing (10,000 BCE), printing (CE1600), and Internet (CE2000)

    Speech was first developed in hunter gatherer clans who needed to be able to communicate to work together as a means to survive. In this first major shift, social media is represented when teaching children and other members of a clan of their knowledge, cultural beliefs and skills to be passed on through generations.

    Writing (numeracy and literacy) began as a need to account for trading economies and personal property. Writing sanctioned for societal organization, “formalized learning was invented as a way to teach a select group of people who had been chosen to serve in manners of importance, such as tasks related to money or religion”(p.20).

    Printing and mass communication invented by the infamous German printer Johannes Gutenberg in 1439 where it was primarily used for printing the Bible. This invention allowed for the printed dissemination of ideas and knowledge.

    Internet, with the invention of computers and their subsequent computer-mediated forms of communication, the internet was created. The World Wide Web was released to the public in 1993 and was welcomed with open arms. Web 2.0 brought with it social applications that emphasize collaboration and user-generated content that dominate the Web today.

  33. Kevin Fong · · Reply

    Chapter two continues off from where chapter one left off and focuses on the history of social media and how it has developed since the beginning into what it is today. The chapter focuses on four specific paradigm shifts throughout human history and how each of these have influenced human society.

    The first paradigm was speech. Speech allowed humans to communicate unlike ever before; through speech, they were able to organize themselves and spread. The second paradigm was writing. Writing allowed humans to write down and document information. While it started as a way to keep track of inventory, it became a way to learn. While speech allowed humans to pass down stories, it was writing that paved way to learning. The third paradigm was printing. Through printing, the privileged few lost their power; the Church no longer held onto the power they once held due to having access to the Bible, now everyone had it. The last paradigm to occur was the internet. The internet allowed for people to collaborate like never before. Information spread across the internet and to the common people; hard to obtain information became relatively easy to access. Each of these four shifts changed how society was structured and moved society in a different direction.

    The internet served as a place where minds met. No longer was distance a factor, people from across the world could communicate with each other and share in knowledge. The chapter then goes into details on various factors of the internet, such as social networks, blogs, and search engines. This is followed up by a detailing of the history of online learning, about how the internet was first used to enhance classroom learning until it reached a point where it was able to split off and entirely online courses became reality.

    Throughout history, technology has changed how learning was applied and with the latest paradigm shift, this is no different. The chapter ends by discussing how the internet has opened up many possibilities for learning, but our current learning environment has to also be shaped so it can adapt to the new technology.

  34. T. Moura · · Reply

    Chapter 2 draws a timeline of learning and technology and presents the four major paradigm shifts of human development. The first is seen as the most important tool for human society; SPEECH. The ability to communicate has enabled humans to express themselves and share information and experiences with their communities, which in turn is the basis of human interaction. Following, the 2nd paradigm shift relates to the invention of writing, literacy and numeracy and at this point, knowledge and history started to be recorded. The 3rd paradigm and perhaps the most popular one was brought with the invention of printing press. Due to the invention of the press, ideas and information could now be exchanged and were able to reach a larger portion of the population. This technology advent made possible for knowledge to be shared in a large scale and also enabled society to access information efficiently and at a much lower cost which motivated learning. Finally, the 4th and final paradigm shift happened fairly recently with the invention of the Internet where information sharing was taken to a global level.

    The Chapter concentrates the discussion on the last paradigm shift and analyses tools like the Web 2.0, which has enabled an online community to share experiences and information with millions and learn from online interactions with one another by using inventions like blogs and online forums. The development of such applications has changed how individuals live their lives and also how they interact with technologies. In fact, this shift has made the world much faster and as a result has also created the need for new practices or theories of learning and generally a reform in several aspects of society in order to adjust to this new tech generation.

  35. Chapter 6: Online Collaborative Learning (OCL) theory
    Chapter 6 identifies the major shift in transmission of knowledge that has occurred between the 20th century and the 21st century. The 20th century is identified to have a didactic approach to teaching and learning, on a epistemological basis was objectivism as it interacted with cognivist, behaviourist, developmental constructivist theories. The learning of this century was on “know to do,” how to operate and work things and the flow of information was finite and stagnate. Since then there has been a major shift in knowledge transmission.
    The 21st century, also known as the “Knowledge Age”, gets its name from the adaptation of the Internet facilitating growth in the uptake and interaction of knowledge and the creation of it. Within the context of the 21st century’s “Knowledge Age” that Professor Harasim introduces OCL (Online Collaborative Theory) as a framework to guide learning theory and practice. Online Collaborative Theory is “ a new theory of learning that focuses on collaborative learning, knowledge building, and Internet use as a means to reshape formal, non formal and informal education for the knowledge age.”(p.82) As 21st knowledge is infinite and constantly being generated, processed and shared, there needs to be a educational tool that is able to facilitate towards the needs and opportunities of the Knowledge Age and those who are constantly engaging with it, the NetGens. Regardless of the convincing statistics of the benefits of OCL and its facilitation towards “self-regulated learning “mediated by the Internet, teachers remain hesitant in adopting it into their classroom. I believe this is because many teachers are unsure on how to focus the structure of teaching and learning, and fear they may be competing with the internet for control; it is because of fear there is reluctance. However, regardless of fear of the unknown, OCL acts as a new learning opportunity to help enhance collaborative learning, knowledge building, and advancement of issues, tools and new understandings.

  36. Rachelle Roberto · · Reply

    Chapter 2 discusses the paradigm shifts that occurred in basic human development and knowledge. From the development of speech to the newest form of knowledge, the internet. The first paradigm is when speech started to occur, approximately 40,000 BC with the hunter and gatherer clans created communities. The second paradigm shift was when writing started to developed. This occurred during the agricultural revolution when the hunter and gatherers started developing societies and agricultural. The third paradigm is printing, when technology was developed and a mass production of writing was able to replicate someone’s writing, without having to hand write all the copies. This allowed for more information to be shared, which led to more people learning to read and write. The fourth paradigm is the development of the internet, that allows for knowledge to be gathered and exchanged around the world, while staying in one location. The first online learning courses were offered in the mid 1980’s to post-secondary students. They focused on seminars and group discussions online.

  37. Jonathan Chen · · Reply

    After introducing the epistemology in chapter 1, chapter 2 mainly focuses on the communication paradigms that have significant influences among human race. Although human population uses different types of communication technologies in order to communicate with each other, the technologies include what human naturally born with such as the ability to speak and form language, the chapter believes that the significant paradigms include speech, writing, printing press, and then the last one would be the Internet. Speech is the most basic communication paradigm as human started to communicate with each other efficiently with this particular paradigm. The following paradigm, writing, allows human to store the information and knowledge for later on use such as educational purposes for the next generation without actual physical presence for passing on knowledge or information like what speech requires. The third paradigm printing press definitely allow human to get educated easily and also allows the information passes time and space like the second paradigm, writing, is capable of.

    The last, and also most recent paradigm, the Internet, really makes information and knowledge available world widely. This paradigm combines the previous paradigms’ characteristics and capabilities all in using one technology. As the people are getting more knowledge and information online, people would have more diversified perspectives and opinions, which really enhances critical thinking as people do not only see one side of the story but also other sides of the story. The technology helps us to memorize certain knowledge for us and we could efficiently and effectively get the knowledge as long as we are connected with the Internet. The Internet also allows changes the knowledge flow from one to one/many to many to many, which means people are learning from each other as they are collaborating learning, retrieving knowledge, and improving knowledge at the same time.

  38. Chapter 2: Historical Overview of Learning and Technology
    Chapter 2 provides an excellent analysis on the four evolutional steps in human development. These four paradigm shifts are speech, writing, printing and internet. I will mainly focus on the third paradigm which is printing, due to the fact that I believe printing is the most significant paradigm shift in human civilization. According to professor Linda Harasim, “the invention of the printing press was a technological innovation with tremendous implications for western society, in that it provided a means for dissemination ideas about not only religion, but also science, education and politics.” Before the printing press was invented, church had the monopoly power of the knowledge. It was difficult for people to achieve knowledge due to the fact that there was no free flow of information. Only church was able to interpret Bibles and people had to follow what the church instructed. However, thing have changed completely after the invention of the printing press. Printing press made the mass production of books possible, which enabled the free flow of information. The public was able to have access to new knowledge. Just like the Professor Linda has pointed out, the rapid spread of publishing was a major factor contributing to the Renaissance, the scientific revolution and the protestant reformation.

  39. Chelsea Frazer · · Reply

    In Chapter 2 of Learning Theory and Online Technology, Linda Harasim goes through the history of communications and social media. She provides insight to social media not being a new phenomenon in regards to online social media and conversely has actually existed since speech and making sounds with intention was first created. She argues that speech itself is a social media because humans are social creatures and naturally want to communicate and collaborate with each other distinguishing them from other mammals.

    In the chapter she outlines 4 paradigm shifts that have had major implications on mankind and how they function and what society develops. The 4 major paradigm shifts are: speech, writing, printing (& mass communication), and the internet. These four shifts have shaped how our society functions today. She argues that these paradigm shifts define how we interact and have led to today and how we use the internet. This background provided helps to situate social media in the context of history to a point where we can separate it from our lives and look at it critically and how it may further develop in the future.

  40. Chapter 2 explores four paradigm shifts to explain in historic context the development of our society today. Human have always been collaborative animals, and this is how we differ from other species. Humans want to engage in learning, communication and progress and is fundamental for civilization. Beginning approximately 40,000 BCE, the first socio-technological shift is speech. Hunter-gatherer communities developed speech to communication with others by grunts, whistles and other noises to indicate a specific meaning. Secondly, in approximately 10, 000 BCE, the agricultural revolution transformed speech into writing to interact with large agrarian populations and to dictate power control over the land. The third paradigm is printing, and has been extremely influential in todays society. Printing allowed the exchange of global trade to occur and the encouragement for new learning ideas. Books, including the Bible was able to be mass produced for a cheaper cost than handwriting. Finally, the last paradigm that is discussed in this chapter is the Internet, and perhaps the one that is most complicated in today’s society. The Internet has impacted every aspect of our lives, both public and private spheres. Just like the first paradigm, the Internet is a space for collaboration and the creating of new ideas and knowledge building. The Internet have become so advanced so quickly, that education has evolved online, social media platforms control our lives, and the constant expectation to have an online presence is encouraged.

  41. Chapter 2: Historical overview of learning and technology
    Chapter 2 narrates that beginning with our earliest ancestors till now, learning and technology have been consistent in being integral to human development. The chapter goes through the history up until now and discuses the key communication technologies in civilization advancement. The first historical landmark of communication technologies is the development of speech in 40,000 BCE. Hunting and Gathering communities produced civilizations based off the technology of sounds and speech, as well as symbolic art. When 10,000 BCE came along, the agricultural revolution and its interaction with growing populations forced the invention of writing and more formal learning. In the 1600s, the printing press emerged disseminating knowledge and expanding it to communities as well as interacting with development of global trade. Finally, the one we are most accustomed to, the internet (ce2000s), created new models and interactions of knowledge, education and economies. It also has plated an extensive role in sustaining collaborative knowledge societies and the OCL theory.

  42. Chapter two is a historical chapter that outlines various paradigm shifts and technological inventions through time and human development. He first paradigm is marked by the development of speech, which enabled early humans to verbally communicate. The second is the invention of writing, intertwined with the Agrarian Revolution. The third is the invention of the printing press, intricately connected to the Industrial Revolution. Lastly, the fourth paradigm shift was brought on not long ago by the invention of the Internet, bringing forth the Knowledge Age. Today, it is clear that the Internet has, and is continuing to transform our society and our ways of life. “The four major paradigmatic shifts associated with speech, writing, printing and the Internet illuminate how technology and learning formed the basis of civilizational advances.” (Pg. 29)

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