Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Technology

Tag Cloud Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Technology

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50 thoughts on “Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Technology

  1. Hi cmns453!

    Welcome to this blog. Here we will experience the discourse that a blogging medium affords the users. Pls. make a reply of 1-2 paragraphs each.

    We’ll begin with blogging about Chapter 1 of the text, during week 2 of this course.

    Chapter 1 looks at the Theory of Knowledge, and exams what is a theory and why is it important. We will also learn the term ‘epistemology’, which underlies our view of ‘what IS knowledge?’

    Essentially epistemology was either METAPHYSICAL or SCIENTIFIC, in a sense determining how we saw the world and how people understood knowledge.

    WIth the Scientific Revolution begun in the 16th century, humanity moved to a more scientific epistemology, which itself evolved into 2 perspectives on the world or on knowledge: objectivist and/or constructivist.

    Why the terms ‘theory’, epistemology’ and ‘knowledge’ are important then is because they each and all consider how we understand the world, and how we will come to understand what constitutes the Knowledge Society and knowledge building.

    Let’s discuss these ideas this coming week on this page. Please bookmark, so that you can come back easily and return soon.
    prof Linda

    1. I agree with with Harasim when she says that our current school system does not correctly present our new advances in technology. Teaching should evolve and not be in a stand still. Students grow up differently and with different technologies then the previous generations, so the way they are taught needs to change as well. However, Harasim does say that we need to learn from our past. This can be applied to the new ways students can learn. Without theory from the past, we as a society would not be able to grow. Knowledge building helps us to move and invent to make our society better.

      Having new technologies like OCL can eventually replace in-class learning, but it may not be the better option. There needs to be a balance otherwise there may be some good ways of teaching that get lost. There is always trial and error and we may never find the perfect way for teaching, but knowing the past and what is current, will help to make it the best it can be. There just needs to be more people willing to change the way students are taught for us to continue to move forward.

    2. The term “Epistemology” bridges the gap between “theory” and “knowledge”. Theory implies a guess about the unknown. Knowledge assumes that what is correct at this point in time will always be correct. It can never be disproved. Knowledge is seen, especially traditionally as an object that can be acquired when it is really a set of currently accepted truths that are ever changing. Epistemology somewhat presents knowledge as a theory. The information is arranged in an order that we currently aggree is correct. It is only the truth until it is proven otherwise. There is nothing constant about knowledge.

      I have mixed feelings about online learning. Although it has the potential to faccilitate collaborative learning, a lot of what passes for collaboration is little more than forced reiteration of text material and responses to that material, also largely derived from the source material. Whether this is a problem exclusive to online learning or the education structure as a whole is a whole other question. The one area in which online learning excels is when problems within the course arise. If a syllabus has given the wrong page for a class reading chapter or a question is phrased incorrectly, the problem can be addressed immediately instead of having to wait for class time.

    3. Both theory and epistemology go hand in hand and result in the production of a knowledge community. Theory results the formulation of ideas therefore influencing the way we view the world and determines our actions. It is much like viewing the world through a lens that allows us to see it a certain way and also respond a certain way. Whereas epistemology asks us what we consider as knowledge. These two terms work together in the discussion of information within a knowledge society. Knowledge communities are the forums wherein the discourse of knowledge are attempted in order to advance in that discipline. There are constant changes in the production of knowledge because theory and epistemology can be limited because of time and available resources.

      I perceive OCL to have both positive and negative results. I disagree, however with what Bill Gates mentioned about OCL- about this new way of learning becoming the future. Because of the presence of objective and constructivist knowledge, it seems as though OCL would yield positive results if the answers were objective as opposed to different perspectives arguing their point. OCL would somehow yield in productive results when it comes to constructivist type of discipline if it was somewhat didactic in a sense; if the student and instructor would continuously collaborate with their ideas and opinions. Ultimately, with the nature of OCL, I believe the face-to-face interaction is still key into the production of important knowledge.

    4. A key point that was raised in Chapter 1 was the role of epistomology and the theory of knowledge – these two go hand in hand and account for the development of a knowledge society. Dean clearly illustrates our progression of learning through history as neccessary objects to our continual growth in knowledge. Knowledge is not merely the transmission of information, but the innovation of new information and ideas. Thus to contribute to the knowledge society means to build on what we already know.

      Considering that epistemology and the theory of knowledge are either based on objectivism – truth – or constructivism – collaboration – it’s an interesting question what the role of online learning should be. Media that are convenient and facilitate open discussion are great tools for knowledge building. In contrast, one-way education is arguably not an effective medium, as it dismisses collaboration. I agree, the Internet is an important tool for the development of the knowledge society; however we must be critical of how and to what extent we use it.

    5. For the last 20 years or so there has been a sort of revolution in terms of learning, there has been a great deal of understanding that different students have different ways of learning and this has lead to the creation of alternative schools, and some experimentation within the more traditional learning system. Technology has helped with this shift delivering new learning tools that help students learn in their own way.

      However the dominant system that comes out of the basic education system seems unwilling to loose it’s hold on the education system. The system was intended to give the basic knowledge of literacy and maths, and indoctrinate students into a worker society. While the terms of that “worker” society have shifted from a manufacturing to a service base. The basic system does not allow for any critical thought.

    6. Chapter 1 introduces concepts such as learning theories, epistemology, the knowledge age, etc. in order for the reader to get a basic understanding in order to comprehend the following chapters in this book. The idea of different theories of how to gain knowledge relies on what type of epistemology the theory is built on. The text splits the views of knowledge into two parts: the metaphysical (belief in the authority of God and that God is always right) and scientific (belief in empirical evidence and using that evidence to study and improve). Later in the chapter, the author talks about constructivist learning theory as a branch from the scientific. Constructivist learning involves many different answers and building towards the right answer. This means that people are being active in knowledge creation and using experience and empirical evidence to create the best answer. From the constructivist learning came the online collaborative learning theory in the 21st century. This theory adapts to the invention of the Internet and creates a learning environment that fits in with the knowledge age that we are currently in.

    7. Chapter 1: Intro to Learning Theory in the Knowledge Age
      Chapter 1 inscribes the current challenges that teachers and students face in the ever-developing knowledge age that we are currently living in. Not only has this incline in technological development impacted our personal lives, but has also been a major aspect of change in both the professional as well as educational worlds. With this increase in online options, especially in the realm of teaching and learning, it has become vital for learning theories to be outlines in order to guide education accordingly.
      With respect to educational institutes, new media has enabled us to learn in new ways. For example, we are not able to access web portals to interact and enroll in distance education courses. I for one can admit that this is an extremely convenient alternative to classroom studies. The first chapter discusses the different learning theories that have arisen recently as a part of the emergence of our “Knowledge Age.” Three major learning theories were discussed: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism and are each associated with specific learning didactics and technologies of our time. Lastly, the latest theory of learning was introduced, The Online Collaborative Learning (OCL for short), as a result of the invention of computer networking and the Internet.

  2. Linda Bi- Chapter 1

    Chapter 1 examines our new society of youths who are referred to as the Net Generation. Our personal, social, professional and cultural lives today revolve around the internet revolution. Thus, social media plays a huge role in impacting us and shaping our realities. However, it is mentioned that educational practices today don’t reflect this new reality. This is why learning theory and technology need to be applied to our teaching practices in order to transform our educational practices to embrace and adapt to these new technologies. It is vital to transform pedagogy in the 21st century beyond transitional ways of teaching.

    Learning theory is fundamental in teaching us why or how something is or should be the way it is. Theory allows us to understand and establish discourse so that we can keep formulating ideas and building upon them. Theory is built upon epistemology, science and the knowledge community. Epistemologies of knowledge are key to how we view teaching and learning because of the objectivist and constructivist perspectives it encompasses. Objectivists focus on facts and principles where a knowledge society is based on change and progress. The other side is based upon traditional beliefs and the metaphysical. Epistemologies combine these two perspectives stating that our knowledge about the world is constructed through our own experiences and knowledge. The terms “theory”, “epistemology” and “knowledge” are clearly fundamental in understanding how we view the world and acts as an important fundamental basis to understanding the knowledge society and knowledge building. This is where online collaborative learning is such a great framework emphasizing individual knowledge-building. Do you guys believe that OCL is an effective educational framework?

    1. I think that it can be hard to answer Linda’s question in absolute terms. In order to understand how effective something is, we must first conduct research into how an audience (students) receives the message (educational materials) and how effective this communication process is for each individual. I suppose that’s why we fill out evaluation forms at the end of each semester. Essentially, to understand the effectiveness of the OCL as an educational framework, I believe we must examine learning styles and take into account that students don’t always learn the same way. I know that the OCL model can’t be everything for everybody, but to that point I think it works well for some subject matter better than others.

      I enjoy online learning in some circumstances, more than in class learning, but I really enjoy learning from class discussions, which I don’t think are quite the same online. Perhaps it’s because we’re all somehow still getting used to it, but I feel that whenever I’ve taken a Distance Education course, for example, the online conversations have been really forced. Other than that, I mostly enjoy learning online because it suits my lifestyle more. But at the same time, I don’t think that the OCL model could take over for in-class learning indefinitely. How effective have you guys found learning online to be, versus in class? Do you feel you learned more online? Or do you prefer the in-class support of good old fashioned lectures?

  3. I agree with Linda’s statements in the first chapter of her book. Without previous knowledge from the past, humanity can not learn and therefore grow. When we look back at Cartesian times we see that education was taught from the churches, which would lead to a bias in the teachings within the civilization. Because there was no science accepted, everything taught was realistically whatever the Pope or leader of the Church would say at that time. But in the text we see that epistemology is roped in with knowledge community, which I am guessing would represent the church in Cartesian times. But the third pillar to the Theory tripod is science, where the theories are put to test and results are given. Without having the science behind general knowledge and epistemology we would never develop and grow as a civilization and in turn we would be stuck in a caveman era. The ability to accept and learn has shaped us, greatly. This cannot have happened, us evolving as a group, without the 3 points of theory, epistemology, knowledge community and science.

  4. I think that Marianna raises a good point about the benefits and costs of an online learning community. I enjoy online learning because it’s extremely flexible and I think it allows for a more comfortable atmosphere for discussion. While many students may be shy in class, and others eager to take over the conversation, I think that many voices are lost in classroom discussions. However, the natural progression of a real-life conversation in real time may not be able to be replicated in an online community. It is interesting to consider the history of epistemology and the fact that it has existed for such a long time. While technology has shifted, learning remains something that is essential in building a knowledge community.
    I think ideally a collaboration of an OLC and in class learning would be a good way to capture the benefits of both methods of teaching. As well, I think regardless of the method of teaching, discussion is paramount in building a knowledge community. It would be far better to be in an effective and dicussion based OLC than in a lecture where you are talked at and have no chance of interacting with peers or the teacher. On the note of metaphysical epistemology, I think it has greatly benefited our society to move towards scientific based learning. Not only is this a less objective form of learning, it also was the first time knowledge was accessible to (mostly) everyone.

  5. I think ever since humans were first able to speak we have been advancing knowledge and creating new knowledge as we share information with others around us. By using more advanced technology it has allowed us to communicate more effectively and there by better enabling us to advance knowledge. Living in a technological driven world where the sole purpose of the technology is used for communication purposes or storing information to create new knowledge, it has given an economic value to knowledge. I believe currently technology is not being used in the most effective way for online learning; but in order to find out which is the most effective way of combining technology and learning together we need go through a process of trail and error. Even knowledge is not set in stone it can change with the development of new theories and ideas that test the traditional theories. I think as teachers continue to integrate technology into the education system for knowledge building; they will learn better methods to using technology for learning and will hopefully step away from using technology in traditional didactic methods. Maybe M.O.O.C. is the future???? I hope not

  6. There’s a term in epistemology which brings to question whether humans are born with an innate set of skills or whether we’re a blank slate, and all knowledge we acquire is reflective of our environment.

    A Priori – from the earlier. knowledge or justification is independent of experience.

    I believe that over the intellectual progression of humanity, specific bits of knowledge appear to remain present in many people. There are certain general fears, for example, which resemble an innate form of knowledge – the fear of spiders, heights, the dark. All these fears were something substantial to worry about at one point or another throughout human history. The point which I want to prove is that the transfer of knowledge has proved to be essential to our well being. And as technological advances further facilitate the transfer of knowledge digitally, traditional forms of education will have to change.

    Regarding the question of whether I learned better online, as opposed to lectures – chalk one for online education. Rather chalk half a dozen over a few years of post-secondary. I attribute the win for online education to the fact that more and more our lives are spent in front of screens. People can suddenly snap into ‘work mode’ and out of ‘social mode’ with more ease when in front of a computer. In a lecture, it’s one professor trying to accommodate 30+ students.Online, while there are still deadlines, it feels like it’s on my terms. I can break whenever I want, I can sleep in, show up late, or finish early.

    Given that some schools have already switched to using iPads as a means of teaching, which as a result has led to a rise in the overall GPA of the students, do you think two or three generations from now the pen and paper will eventually be phased out? Tech appears to be the direction we’re heading in, how will this change the dynamics of education between professor and student?

  7. As previously mentioned, chapter one focuses on the importance of theory in our knowledge society. The transition from metaphysical to scientific epistemology is significant as it demonstrates how our understanding of the world has changed over time. Even though our society has shifted into a new paradigm, that concerns the internet and the use of technology as a part of everyday life, i think we still have yet to learn to use these resources effectively.

    In regards to the education system, I think Amit raises a good point, that there needs to be a trial and error process when combining the use of technology and learning. OCL can be useful in ways that traditional teaching practices may lack. Such as creating an environment where discourse and knowledge building is encouraged and supported. An effective way of advancing our education system may be done through a balance between traditional practices and new advancements. I believe that this step towards a more constuctivist learning style will foster knowledge building and advancement in our knowledge society.

  8. I found the introduction of this chapter highlighted an essential distinction in the terms of integrating technology and education, that being the difference between quantitative and qualitative change in education. In today’s education system, many technological changes have been made on a quantitative level, such as Linda mentioned, with the use of PowerPoint slides and through course websites. To set the stage for discussion of a new learning theory, we are familiarized with three traditional learning theories of the 20th century; behaviourism, cognitivism and constructivism. Upon reading about each theory it becomes evident that each theory is very closely and crucially associated with the context in which it was developed and lived out by society. Also, we see how a theory that governs a society strongly shapes the everyday of the individual and what is considered valuable to a community, and consequently how a population perceives and adopts knowledge.
    This chapter marks my first formal encounter with online collaborative learning framework. By narrowing in on active learning grounded in educational settings OCL seems to be the solution to the pedagogical difficulty we face in the 21st century.
    A section in this chapter that I question is Robert Calfee’s identification of four problems with 20th century educational psychology. Perhaps my interpretation and reading of the four problems is too shallow or narrow but I do not find them to be very profound.

  9. Chapter One opens up with an overview of the shift in learning from the 20th century up to the 21st. Looking at extreme ends of the spectrum, the former was a period in which didactic (one-way information transmission) approaches were primarily used, while the latter, modern period in which knowledge discourse and collaborative learning online is increasingly surfacing. The contemporary media landscape is transforming rapidly in ways like never before, whether we like it or not. With the avant-garde enabling tools and technologies available out there which can facilitate learning both on an individual level and on a larger scale, it can be very tempting for educators to quickly adopt these new media tools and platforms and implement them in a classroom setting. Before readily taking drastic measures in changing the way knowledge is shared and built within the academic community, the implications of doing so must first be carefully considered.

    Riffing off our previous class discussion pertaining to institutions that are taking revolutionary steps in cultivating a thriving knowledge community, I feel that those which are solely relying on new technologies to transmit and administer knowledge via the web to mass amounts of students are missing an important element: meaningful discourse. While making learning materials more accessible online would help those who may not be as privileged to be formally enrolled in an academic institution would be advantageous to an extent, without active discussions and debates taking place (either online or offline), a person’s intellectual growth will be stunted as there can only be so much that can be self-taught, on solely an individual level. A degree of learning happens when an individual absorbs information, but that is further leveraged when lively two-way (one-many/many-many) conversations start to occur. This is what paves the way for more discovery, innovative and collaborative learning to take place. I feel that implementing a more mixed or blended-mode of learning rather than abolishing face-to-face classroom learning completely would be a good place to start, as embracing the new technologies that facilitate learning is pretty inevitable in this day and age.

  10. I have just re-read Chapter 1 and two points occur to me – which may or may not be relevant to this course of study:

    1. BRAIN PLASTICITY: Do paradigm shifts in educational theory and practice bring about actual changes in our brains? Do our brains become “wired” differently if we are immersed in Online Collaborative Learning rather than old-school didactic education?

    I understand there is now research on the structure and function of the brains of small children who have been born in the last decade that claims to identify new neural patterns or ways of processing information, which are different than those in my 61 year old brain. Apparently the human brain is very “plastic” OR malleable and readily adapts to new use patterns. And if the brain is anything like the rest of the human body, presumably then the younger you are the more plastic and malleable the brain? And, ( supplemental ) is the brain all there is? Don’t we need more than just the intellect to learn?

    2. CONTEXT: Chapter 1 lacks social, political and economic context, from my perspective at least. As I understand it, a lot of what determines educational reform or advances in educational theory and practice is not so much what educators determine is good for teaching and learning, but rather, imperatives from the corporate sector, imposed on the education system by government. I don’t know if the conclusions would be any different, but I’d appreciate analysis that “follows the money” a bit too.

  11. As our generation becomes more integrated and connected, I think it is really a shift (or evolution) to the way humans consume information and interact. I think now more than ever, jobs require multitasking and to be always reachable through email or phone. Technology has changed the way organizations are run and humans have adapted and evolved to process smaller chunks of information at a much higher volume. To ask a generation who invented tl;dr (too long, didn’t read) it speaks volumes of how we have changed the way we process information. For universities to make kids sit in a 4 hour lecture while a prof reads to them is a lot to expect, and by integrating OCL, it may be a less foreign concept to our generation than many might believe. 

  12. I think there is a problem with what you’re saying Michael, because I think we are, in a lot of ways, stuck thinking about certain jobs. What about jobs like construction, or plumbing. What do jobs like this benefit from learning online?

  13. The first thing that impressed me a lot, which I am going to comment on is from chapter one, the invention and rapid development of online education, the rise of Online Collaboratively Learning theory and its impacts on the build of knowledge society since later 20th century. This latest development of online education does not only provide open, unlimited, and free resource online for it users, but also constructs a brand new online forums for its users to interact with each other collaboratively, which eventually facilitates the process of knowledge flow. In other words, the rapid development and popularity of online education within networked environment actually provides Netizens a more liberal bridge between knowledge producers such as university, academic institutions and professor, and knowledge acquirer, such as students and netizens. Most significantly, it is believed that the free charges, collaborative learning system, the freely interaction and easier accessibility that OLC or Moocs distinctly features are actually challenging the conventional pattern of teaching, studying, learning and instruction knowledge fundamentally.

  14. The most impressive thing that this chapter draws us is its detailed portrays on the four phrases of human development in history and the significant roles that rapid development of technologies were playing on the transformations of human knowledge system. As a matter of fact, this kind of technological determinism theory that this four phases illustrate in chapter two actually reminds me of how Macluan thinking about communication technologies, “the introduction of new communication technologies will fundamentally reconfigure the society in social, cultural and philosophical dimensions.”
    The invention of press printing technologies and printing books enables the knowledge could be disseminated and delivered in more open and efficient ways, which subsequently collapsed the dominance of clerical rule of medieval- Europe for over thousand years, and eventually impacts the entire power relation and hegemony of its sage deeply. Nowadays, as the introduction and rapid development of another communication technologies, the Internet based technologies, it is believed that another social, culture and philosophical reconfiguration in contemporary world are also happening accordingly. And more importunely, it is believed that this reconfigured transformation in society due to the introduction of advanced information technology will also affect the way of how people producing knowledge, such as the Wikipeidia, the way of how we disseminating knowledge such as the Google, and the way of how we inquiring knowledge, such as the online education system, the Moocs and OCL. Subsequently, I believed this kind of changing landscape in knowledge system that is happening now will also deeply impact the entire power-relationship and power distribution beyond the society in profound ways, which leaded to the research question that we draw again and again in the lecture, “who owns the future?”

  15. While I was reading Chapter !, there were two points occur to me:

    1. Epistemology bridges theory and knowledge, making them work hand in hand in a knowledge society. Without epistemology, there is a gap between theory and knowledge. According to Linda, theory is an explanation, which means theory is referred to unknown questions.Knowledge is information and skills acquired through experience or education. Thus, it requires a third party to connect these two terms. Epistemology is dealing with what is knowledge and how do we know. It contains both explanation and the system of information acquiring, therefore, it allows us to transmit from what’ve learned into absorbing information. In other words, epistemology helps complete the process of learning.

    2. Three major learning theories influenced education in 21 century: behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism. In regard to OCL, which learning theory can be applied to this 21 century learning model? However, the OCL learning theory is “built upon these three theories and represent a new perspective” (p.12). Moreover, I think this new learning theory is also challenging the old ones because the old ones are emphasizing on ‘transmitting knowledge’ from the teacher to the students while the new one is working on collaborative learning which allows students to learn from both their peers and the teacher. It is more suitable for the 21st century Knowledge Age since learning is not only ‘passive’ but also ‘active’.

  16. Chapter one introduces some of the basic building blocks of Learning Theory and Online Technologies, such as theory, epistemology, positivism, knowledge and learning theories of the 20th century.

    The chapter begins by arguing that contemporary educational practices have largely failed to keep up with the computer advances in the knowledge society. Rather than doing a full overhaul of the educational system, most educators have merely merged technology with traditional ways of teaching. As a result, many students are missing out on more advanced ways of learning.

    A theory is an explanation for how and why something occurs. Theories are important because they provide a framework or lens for our observations. It is important to note that theories reflect the times in which they emerged.

    Epistemology asks what counts as knowledge and how do we know what we know. Objectivist epistemology maintains that knowledge and values exist independent of consciousness. Knowledge is discovered as opposed to created. Constructivist epistemology on the other hand holds that knowledge is a social construct. Traditional learning theory views knowledge from an objectivist perspective.

    Positivism is a philosophical view that maintains that only scientific knowledge is authentic knowledge. This form of empiricism bases all knowledge on perceptual experience and not on intuition or revelation.

    Behaviorist learning theory focuses on people’s observable behaviors and how to change or evoke particular behaviors.

    Cognitivist learning theory recognizes the importance of the mind in making sense of the world. Cognitivists argue that people generate knowledge and meaning through development.

    Constructivist learning theory emphasizes the role of the individual in making sense of the world. People are not like trained parrots, which just repeat what they are taught. Constructivism views the learner as much more actively involved with the teacher and other peers. Meaning and knowledge is constructed through our interactions with one another.

    Behaviorist, cognitivist, and constructivist learning theories all emphasize learning as an individualistic pursuit. This is reflective of the logic of the industrial age. The knowledge age is changing this mindset by making learning a more collaborative endeavor.

    1. I think it’s interesting to see that the rise of the two different learning theories, in a way gives proof that knowledge is gained constructively because learning theories are continuously evolving. Looking more into the readings, I realize that each learning theory seems to be developed either in response to its current societal context. This leads me to wonder what kind of learning theories would emerge if MOOCs become the predominant mode of learning.

      The transition from metaphysical to scientific epistemology is also interesting because it reflects on our development as a knowledge society. Personally, I think there is still predominantly this reliance to a one single truth. People may not seek God for answers to that single truth anymore but I think we’re convinced that there is a definitive answer to anything. What I wonder though is how much of this “single truth” thinking is a direct cause of how we learn in schools.

  17. One of the interesting points about Chapter One was the acknowledgement of a seemingly dependent nature between epistemology and theory. Defining theory as ‘a solid guess’ essentially constitutes three certain aspects to theories which are key to its formulation: epistemology, science, and knowledge communities, or in other words, philosophies of knowledge, physical evidence, and the leading thinkers of the discipline. While it is self explanatory why physical evidence and members of the discipline might be instrumental to the construction of theory, epistemologies are a bit more challenging to grasp.

    Essentially, there are two epistemologies: metaphysical and science. The branch of science stems from positivist roots – which is to say that there is a need for empirical evidence – and thus is a combination of both objectivist and constructionist epistemologies, which respectively, both suggest that evidence acts as an authority figure and knowledge is something that can be built upon.

    This tracing of epistemology throughout history, along with the presence of certain knowledge communities, has lead to the creation of three distinct learning theories: behaviourist, cognivist, and constructivist. Each of these also trace the essence of more recent epistemological history, as humans went from believing ‘what you cannot see does not count’, to placing importance on those things that you can’t see, such as the mind (actually, cognivist theory is also distinctly seen today as it also concerns technology that can emulate the mind – think of artificial intelligence). As for constructivist learning theory, it was determined that the learner should be much more involved within a joint experience between themselves, the teacher, and peers in creating a collective meaning.

  18. Chapter 1 started with Albert Einstein’s quote: “It is the theory that decides what we can observe.” I thought that this was a perfect quote to begin the introduction to Learning Theory in the Knowledge Age being that whether you can observe a thing or not depends on the theory that you use to make an observation on that thing. The Computer Networking Revolution has transformed our personal, professional, social and cultural lives, however, it isn’t something that we can visually see but a phenomenon; therefore theory needs to be used to understand the revolution and transformation of society all the way from the invention of the first communication methods –speech– to the accessibility of powerful search engines.

    Theory uses three main approaches that explain why, how, where, when and what, while providing a framework or guide in understanding discourse of ideas: “The theory we employ (even unknowingly) shapes how we design and implement our practice” (p. 4). Learning theory is based on key concepts such as Epistemology (“God is the Answer”), Scientific Method (“Truth is our there, all we have to do is find it”), and Knowledge Communities (“We build knowledge”). Three major learning theories influenced education in the 20th century: behaviorism (empirical, observational and measurable), cognitivist (recognized the importance of the mind while figuring out what was in that “black box of the mind” in making sense of the material world) and constructivism (explains how learners construct meaning through both theory and the epistemology of learning). Due to the continually changing means of communication, “new learning needs new technologies” (p. 14) to enable our understanding of the challenges of teaching and learning in an increasingly online world.

  19. In chapter 1 Linda Harasim talks about learning theory and knowledge,also she describes learning theories that are existing. In chapter 1 Linda described 3 most important learning theories of 20th century which are behaviorist theory, cognitivist theory and constructivist theory. She explains each theory in detail and also explains what technologies associated with each of them. .Behaviorist learning theory focuses on what can be observed and measured. So this theory concentrates on how people behave and how this behaviour can be changed. Behviorists limited their consideration to stimulus and response.”Every particuar act stumulates a response that could be observed, repeated and quantified”(L. Harasim, p11). Pavlov is well known scientist that has made an experiment using behaviorist approach.

    Cognitivist learning theory is concerned with “technology that could model the mindand represent knowledge”.”Cognitivism pedagogy was based on objectivist instructional design and on contrary behaviorist learning theory pedagogy employed a didactic model of teaching.

    Constructivist learning theory is based on understanding how people learn and the view of nature of the knowledge. This theory concentrates on learning and understanding how each individual receives the information and captures it. The theory explains that people gain knowledge through interaction with one another as well as through personal experiences. Every single individual creates the knowledge based on their own experience and their understanding of the reality.

    I think that explanation of learning theories were the main point of chapter 1. I understood that how people learn can be explained using this or another theory. Those 3 major learning theories desribe how human beings learn and how they understand the knowledge.

  20. Chapter one opens with the notion that our society has moved on into the knowledge age. Our generation is called the “net generation” for we live and work with internet closely integrated into our everyday lives. The way we live and work have shifted toward technologically advancement; however, education has remained almost the same ever since the 19th Century. Bits and pieces of technology become integrated with the education system, but the system of learning never advanced. So to understand how we can help shift the learning sphere towards a more technological advanced era, it is vital to know more about the learning theories.

    Not until recently in history, the epistemology of the world we know today simply based all their knowledge and explanations on metaphysics (God). Auguste Comte in the 19th Century developed theory and scientific methods which suggested using empirical evidence (things that one can see and measure) to replace the metaphysical beliefs. Also arising in the 19th Century were Objectivism and Constructivism. Objectivism acknowledges that “knowledge is absolute and matches reality,” (p. 14) while Constructivism suggests “knowledge is created to fit with reality” (p. 14). Under Objectivism were the Behaviorist Learning Theory (Ivan Pavlov: seeing how people behave), and Cognitivist Learning Theory, (seeking to understand the mind) where the former believes that “learning is performing new behavior,” (p. 14) and the latter believes “learning is processing of information” (p. 14). Constructivism branches into Constructivism Learning Theory and Online Collaborative Learning Theory (OLC). Constructive Learning theory does not believe there is absolute truth, and the fact that we can only truly learn through interacting with one another, for “learning is making meaning by doing” (p. 14). The OLC Theory believes that “learning is intellectual convergence through discourse” and it is not an individual pursuit like the other theories. It is done through the collaborations of knowledge brought together in from different people to undergo intellectual convergence.

  21. The key concept of Chapter 1 – a) “epistemology”, b) role of theory, c) “Knowledge Age”, explain about how closely we are linked and connected with each other through different social media platforms through online discussion, online meeting, online education etc. We as the “Net Generation” are experiencing the advancement of technology and Internet which means that social media plays a significant role in impacting our life and many aspect of our lives nowadays.

    Theory helps us to create a framework to understand and formulate the ideas. It tells us what and why it is important to understand knowledge building. It also shapes our understanding and view and explains why and how something happens. More importantly, theory we employ shapes how we design and implement our practice (p.4). Hence, the role of epistemology gives us the perspective of world view in 3 major learning theories: behaviourist learning theory (focus on empirical, observable, measurable), cognitivisit learning theory (mind as computer) and constructivist learning theory (how people act when learning). These theoretical frameworks shapes the way we understand.

    Epistemology is the key to how we view and how we practice teaching and learning.
    All in all, the terms of “epistemology”, “theory”, and “knowledge age” give us a clearer idea of how to perceive the world and how we build up our Knowledge Society and be aware of what is happening around us. The word “collaborative” is quite important to understand the online education in which we collaborate our knowledge from different perspectives and converge our intellectual ideas together.

  22. Chapter 1 uncovers the introduction to the Learning Theory in today’s knowledge age. As stated by Linda Harasim (2012), “Learning Theory and Online Technologies addresses the need for a theory of learning for the 21st century realities” (p.3). It is through technology that new ways of knowledge building and learning are becoming more popular and present through online interaction. The Learning Theory helps to explain how information is processed and taught during the learning process. This theory ultimately helps to formulate how we articulate and structure our ideas. Therefore, it is important that the Learning Theory is used to help further education and utilize technological advances to perform new teaching methods.

    I think Chapter 1 provides a strong overview of how modern technology is going to affect the future of how we learn and educate. Using the concept of epistemology to determine how the knowledge is going to be used and looking at artificial intelligence in attempt to facilitate learning and to ultimately mimic human intelligence. Understanding that there are two major epistemologies of the 20th and 21st centuries including the objectivist epistemology (cognitivist theories of learning) and constructivist epistemology (online collaborative learning theories). As Chapter 1 discusses the major social and civilizational shift of technology, I believe electronic courses may face many technical difficulties leading to the interruption of learning. Therefore, transmitting information must be well articulated and structure to achieve the desired result of knowledge building.

  23. Chapter one introduces a discussion very relevant today; that is, how can educators make use of online technologies in a meaningful and relevant way. To discuss this topic, the chapter begins by introducing us to two different epistemological perspectives and the different learning theories that arise from them. Metaphysical epistemology, popular in the pre-enlightenment era, suggests that there is only one answer and God has it. With the Enlightenment came scientific theory which led to a positivist epistemology where again there is one answer, but we can find it ourselves through scientific testing, and can be told the answer from a more learned expert. These are both objectivist epistemological perspectives. From positivist objectivist epistemology, we get two theories of learning: behaviourist learning theory, which focuses on observing how people behave and measuring in an empirical way, and cognitivist learning theory which wa a response to limitations of behaviourist theory such as the fact that behaviourism doesn’t explain social behaviours, or anything that cannot be seen or measured. Both of these use a didactic teaching model. Constructivist learning theory, however, sees the value in collaborative learning. Constructivism acknowledges that there isn’t always one right answer, and that answers and meaning evolve. Everyone brings new perspectives to the table, teachers and students alike.

    Constructivism is vital to effective online collaborative learning. OCL, deployed in an effective way, allows students and educators to enter into a discussion in ways that are not always possible in a classroom, and certainly not in a lecture setting. In OCL settings, everyone can discuss and make meaning together, through forum posting, email and chat discussions, wikis, and more. With the internet right there, it because easy to link to outside sources and scholars, and enter into a community of learning.

  24. Chapter 1 introduces concepts such as learning theories, epistemology, the knowledge age, etc. in order for the reader to get a basic understanding in order to comprehend the following chapters in this book. The idea of different theories of how to gain knowledge relies on what type of epistemology the theory is built on. The text splits the views of knowledge into two parts: the metaphysical (belief in the authority of God and that God is always right) and scientific (belief in empirical evidence and using that evidence to study and improve). Later in the chapter, the author talks about constructivist learning theory as a branch from the scientific. Constructivist learning involves many different answers and building towards the right answer. This means that people are being active in knowledge creation and using experience and empirical evidence to create the best answer. From the constructivist learning came the online collaborative learning theory in the 21st century. This theory adapts to the invention of the Internet and creates a learning environment that fits in with the knowledge age that we are currently in.

  25. Chapter 1; an Introduction to Learning Theory in the Knowledge Age

    Chapter One begins with the statement saying that our personal, professional, social, and cultural lives have been renovated by the computer networking revolution. With new media technologies being easier to access in everyday life, it is easy to understand how our attention can divert from one area of focus to another. These technologies, such as smartphones, allow for multitasking to be achieved easier than ever and guarantee access to the most recent information all through a click of a button. With this being said, there are many different views on this matter, ranging from some individuals seeing the introduction of technology in education as a factor which will harm learning rather than benefiting it (such as MOOCs). On the contrary, there are many who say that the implementation of technology and online working has already begun and the methods of teaching have to adapt with the rapid adjustments taking place. With our century being referred to as the “knowledge age”, “a time win which knowledge has key social economic value” (page 2), are youth are labeled as the “Net Generation” due to our upbringing being shaped and molded by the technology around us.

    There often seems to be a difference of opinions between students and staff concerning the use of technology through educational means from recent studies in my previous communication courses taken at SFU. Some argue that this is a generation gap, but it may just be simply out of habit due to many professors growing up learning through the use of pen and paper as this has been the didactic methods of teaching. While the internet, web, and communication technologies have transformed our methods of communication, “the challenge of how to transform how we think about learning and how we practice our profession confronts us” (page 2). The change brought upon us with the internet is measured by quantitative vs. qualitative change, weighing quantitative (improvement in education efficiency) vs. qualitative (in how we perceive and practice teaching and learning).

    Chapter one gives a brief introduction to Epistemology in which Linda goes further into detail about this in lecture. Epistemology asks us “what is knowledge? How do we know? “(page 6) and the 20th – 21st century epistemologies are objectivist epistemology (reflected in behaviorist and cognovits theories of learning) and constructivist epistemology (reflected in constructivist and the online collaborative learning theories). These two epistemologies can be divided into Metaphysical vs. Scientific (positivism based on empirical evidence). Metaphysm and objectivism have a similar point of view, where the truth exists, there is a right answer and we are trying to get to it. Scientific has constructivism and objectivism within it, and the knowledge evolves, a belief that the truth exists.

    Positivism is regarded as a philosophical perspective to consider only scientific knowledge is valued as correct knowledge. Whereas behaviorist learning theories solely recognizes individual’s observable behaviours and how to evoke certain behaviours.

    The cognitivist learning theory I personally believes refers to the self, and how the self evolves and understands the world around them. Whilst constructivism refers to how the professor teachers the students, and this is how we learn information.

    This chapter prepares us thoroughly with what is to come in the course and how technology is going to reshape our future. With the two epistemologies in mind, and different theories evaluated, chapter one really provides different frame works in which helps process the daily information we absorb on a daily basis, which is now being injected to us through the medium of technology.

  26. Chapter one emphasized that theories of learning are based on three components: epistemologies, scientific methods and the role of knowledge communities. There are two main perspectives on epistemology. The metaphysics believe in the sole authority of God and religion. They hold that the truth is from the mind of God. Objectivism objected metaphysics, arguing that the truth should be scientifically verifiable. They believe in the authority of empirical evidence to get the knowledge. The objectivism perceive that learning theory and epistemology of learning are identical terms because knowledge is absolute and only can be obtained from empirical explanations. However, constructivism holds that knowledge is constructed through people’s interaction and communication with one another and there is not just right or wrong answers to the world.The invention of Web 2.0 provide people who can access to the internet more opportunities to link to learning resources and interact to one another. “As with learning theories of the 20th century, online collaborative learning theory build upon previous approaches, but presents a new perspective.” (p.12) When studying the OCL theory, we should not overlook but emphasized more on the role of teachers. The question of what is a good teacher and how to be a good teacher are more challenging in OCL.

  27. o In chapter 1 we discussed why is epistemology and/or theories are important concepts for people. Epistemology is definitely important because it is an important study/field that tries to explain theories and how we, human, see the world differently due to different theories and perspectives. Epistemology will help us to understand how certain theories would do what things and why certain theories would think their ways. It could also explain how each theory dominants different in time in the past so we could learn from the past and perhaps apply some concepts now or even in the future. Epistemology also helps us to see the counter theories or non-dominant theories in different time and space. Understanding epistemology would definitely help us to advance our current knowledge and hopefully to assist human to grow positively.
    o Understanding the importance of epistemology and theories allows us to have the opportunity to advance these theories as we learn something out of understanding these theories such as theism, objectivism, and constructivism. After learning the theories we could always use it for various purposes, just like people use technologies to enhance their lives, just the matter of how they are using, why they are using, and who is benefiting. I strongly believe that we should benefit majority of the population once we learn something rather than minority of the population. For example, the theory that theist believes would only benefit small portion of the population rather than majority of the population. Understanding different theories definitely would help us to perceive different theories critically.
    o Learning epistemology is important and significant only when we know how to apply the theories we learned and use them to enhance/advance ourselves. Plans without actions would forever be just plans and no implementations means staying and sticking with the original condition and circumstance, which means that understanding is not sufficient because knowing does not make changes. For example, although majority of the Canadian younger generations, sometimes even older generations, feel that the news in the country is not catchy or significant enough for us to have the motives to read them, but no one has tries to change it. In other words, when there is a problem that everybody knows and we all know what the cause is, it will remain its existence until someone tries to solve it. Perhaps younger generations now do not feel that they have the power to influence the world; therefore, they let the older generations having the control only because they do not think they have the power while they actually do.

  28. Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory in the Knowledge Age

    The textbook begins off by describing the huge impact networking technologies have had on our personal, professional, social, and cultural lives. New media technologies are emerging that are enabling users to access a plethora of different virtual portals with the click of a button. This shift to all things digital has sparked discussion about whether or not technology and social networking are truly benefitting the world. Lately, this shift to digital technologies has been quite prevalent within education and this discussion of whether or not it is benefitting students remains. On one hand, many believe that integrating technology into conventional methods of education will be harmful to learning, whereas others believe that since our society and the technology within the society are constantly evolving it just seems that a shift is simply organic.

    The era we live in has been dubbed the “knowledge age.” This refers to the idea that the concept of knowledge remains at the core of our society and is one of the fundamental pillars of our day to day functioning. The term “Net generation” has signified the success of the fourth paradigm that is internet amongst youth.

    Furthermore, chapter one discusses the theory of epistemology. A theory is a system of ideas intended to explain something, provide insights about a topic, and shape our view about what is going on. Epistemology is the theory of knowledge, with regard to its methods, validity and scope. It questions what knowledge is and what it is comprised of. Within class lecture, it was discussed that there are two different scientific beliefs; objectivism which focuses on a right answer and the individual act of thinking, and constructivism/positivism which maintains that truth is subjective, based on collaboration and is shaped within a knowledge community.

    Essentially, chapter 1 provides us with a base to work with while studying and examining the knowledge age. It gives us a fundamental understanding of key course concepts and raises discussions about the modern and future uses of technology. With a better understanding of the two epistemologies (objectivism/constructivism), we can further discuss and understand how technology is being fed to us and how in turn we are using it based on our own personal beliefs.

  29. Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory in the Knowledge Age

    Chapter 1 provided an understanding of the learning theory which has transformed society from solely informational based, to the knowledge society today. The three main component that make up a theory are epistemology, science and the collaboration of the knowledge community. These three components are specifically important because they contribute to knowledge building and different methods of learning.
    Epistemologies, in a broad scope refers to knowledge. How we see the world and how we come to know of things is known as an epistemology. For the most part of history, knowledge was derived from God, and he held the truth to the world’s questions. This type of knowledge is called the objectivist epistemology, where knowledge is transmitted from one source to another. Teachers in the 19th c used this teaching method because that was all that was known in the world, and information would just get passed down from generation to generation, deriving from God.
    Until recently, the pass down of knowledge worked. However, as science developed, and transformed the way people viewed the world, constructivist became the other dominant epistemology of the 20th century. Constructivism focuses on knowledge as a result from our perceptions and interactions. Knowledge is constructed through communities of knowledge and discussions with others. Along with constructivism, the 20th century also gave birth to two other learning theories; behaviourism and cognitivism.
    These three learning theories are introduced in chapter one and discusses the future of knowledge building with the development of online technologies and the invention of computer networking. Chapter one has provided a foundation of various learning theories that will help to understand the Knowledge Age as we get into deep analysis in relation to technology and social media.

  30. Chapter one really aids in the identification of a variety of themes and vocabulary that are essential in understanding the messages that are not only presented within the text but also within the course itself. The chapter begins with addressing the concepts of epistemology as the process of “how we come to know.” By presenting the epistemologies of objectivism and constructivism the text illustrates how using epistemological views frame processes of thought and therefore, frame how we create and understand knowledge. Objectivists are explained as those who believe in the truth that exists outside the human mind, and is subjective.

    Objectivist epistemology is linked to the didactic method of teaching which focuses on transmitting knowledge form the teacher to the student through a passive process. This chapter also introduces Behaviourist Learning Theory that focuses on observable and measurable theories, Cognitivist Learning theory that focuses on the mind and then introduces Constructivist Learning Theory. Constructivist Learning Theory is presented as a major epistemological frame for this course and involves how individuals make sense of the world, the construction of knowledge through interactions and the active involvement of students.

  31. Chapter one introduces a framework for learning theory that will be drawn on throughout the text. This chapter begins with the introduction of theory and how it shapes our ideas. Harasim then breaks down the theory of learning into three main components, these are: epistemology, scientific method, and knowledge community.

    Epistemology can be defined as the theory of learning, it seeks a deeper understanding of knowledge, what it is, and how to we come to know. Objectivist epistemology holds that the truth is out there and just needs to be found and science and education are the key to unlocking and obtaining knowledge. Constructivism on the other hand, maintains that the knowledge is constructed and is shaped by our perceptions and ideas of the world. Through a constructivist lens, knowledge is created by knowledge communities where the truth is sought after and we are only getting closer to understanding it.

    Three major learning theories in the 20th century are then outlined, these are: Behaviourist learning theory, which holds that we learn through observation of what is measurable and empirical; cognitivist learning theory addressed behaviourist theory’s failure to include the role of the mind in learning, thus cognitivist learning holds that the brain is similar to the computer where information is processed and stored; constructivist learning theory takes a more contemporary approach that suggests that people learn by constructing their understanding of the world through their own perceptions and ideas.

    Learning theory in the 21st century incorporates today’s modern technologies focusing on online communities as a way to learn by collaborating with others who are also seeking truth.

  32. Chapter one provides a basic outline for the rest of the remaining chapters. It briefly introduces key terms, such as epistemology and the concept of the knowledge society, and the learning theories that are later covered in the text. The chapter covers the rise of learning theories in the twentieth century; focusing on three in particular.

    The first learning theory is behaviorist learning theory, which consists of observation. It focused on what was visible and ignored the value of the mind. The second theory is cognitivist learning theory, which in comparison to behaviorist learning theory, focused on the mind. Both of these theories had a main point in common; they both involved a traditional passive form of learning. The last theory, constructivist learning theory differed in that it involved active learning, where the learners constructed their own knowledge. In contrast to the first two theories, constructivist theory taught that knowledge was not absolute.

    With the coming of the twenty first century, the online world gained influence. The chapter ends with a discussion on online collaborative learning theory. Just like with the previous theories of the last century, online collaborative learning theory built on previous theories but opened up a new perspective. The text argues that it is necessary to incorporate online into the learning environment. While the online world is becoming more prevalent in our lives, learning the classroom has largely remained static.

    Throughout history, learning has been intertwined with the evolution of technology but in today’s modern society, the rapidly advancing technology is largely separate from the classroom environment besides minor incorporation involving posting of notes, submitting assignments, and releasing marks. To adapt, the classroom must intertwine with the online environment.

  33. One of the most important topics, and the first point presented in the book in Chapter 1 calls attention to the need to incorporate and integrate in an efficient manner the technologies available to us nowadays and develop a theory of learning that can encompass them in such a way. It highlights the need for a new model and presents background information on different theories of learning that are currently accepted in education in the 21st century society like behaviorist, constructivism and cognitivist. The first focuses on observable behavior, the second view that knowledge is constructed through interactions and individuals actively learn and the later address the importance on individual perception in making sense of the world and developing knowledge. These three theory of learning are important to grasp because the author suggests that a Learning Theory and Online Technologies should be drawn from them in order to create a framework for observation that will better ‘fit’ with the challenges present in the contemporary society.

    In addition, the first section of the book also clarifies important terms like theory which is defined as an explanation and used to explain unknown questions and the term knowledge which refers to the information and skills an individual develops through experience and education. Finally the Chapter also discusses epistemology which bridges what we know with what knowledge is and provides information on the two major epistemologies of our society; objectivist and constructivist which are reflected in the learning theories employed in education.

  34. Chapter one gives an overview of what will be discussed in the rest of the chapters, as well as discusses important theories and types of learning in the 20th/21st century. An important theory is epistemology, which can also be referred to as the “theory of knowledge”, this theory questions ‘what knowledge is’ and ‘ How do we know’(pg, 6). In the 20th and 21st century used two major epistemologies they are objectivist epistemology and constructivist epistemology.
    Objectivists epistemology reflects on behaviourist and cognitivist theories. Behaviourist learning theory focuses on how people behave, how to change or evoke specific behaviours. Cognitivist learning theory was developed to explain what the behaviourist model to could not explain. Cognitivism focus on how technology could model the mind and create educational technologies that could mimic the mind through computer programs.
    Constructivist epistemology reflects on constructivist and online collaboration learning theories. Constructivist learning theory says that a person’s experiences and information shape their own understanding and knowledge of information. Online Collaborative Learning Theory was developed when internet and computers become more common and the theory addresses the opportunities these new technologies give learning and teaching.

  35. Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Technology
    Chapter 1 provides excellent understandings of important concepts on different learning theories, epistemology, scientific methods and knowledge communities. I have learned a lot from reading chapter one, especially on the different views on knowledge. For the theist (metaphysician), they believe that there is only true answer existing in the universe. That only true answer comes from the God. If we interpret the world view from an objectivist perspective, we will find out that science is the only truth. With the development of technology and human civilization, science gradually replaced the role God once played. Objectivist emphasized that science is the right answer (which is different form the constructivist perspective). For example, objectivists believe that artificial intelligence as well as the robots are perfect and are way better than human beings. On the other hand, constructivists believe that science is the best answer human can achieve. However, constructivists do not believe that science is necessary the right answer. Constructivists believe that human being are creative on knowledge achievement and is able to use experience and empirical evidence to go to the right answer. According to constructivists, people are blind, and they are going to the right answer. From this constructivist perspective, in this 21st century, we have a new learning perspective which is Online Collaborative Learning theory. OCL focuses on knowledge building process by having knowledge discourse.

  36. Chapter 1 of Learning Theory and Online Technology looks at the important concept of theory and breaks it down into epistemology, science and knowledge community. In the book a theory is defined as something that explains (answers the ‘why?’ ‘how?’ ‘where?’ ‘when?’ and ‘what?’) a phenomenon and provides a framework or a lens to shape the understanding, discourse, ideas, technology, methodology and actions pertaining to that concept.
    Theories are also driven by an underlying epistemology, or the ‘philosophy of knowledge’. Through the chapter we are introduced to the epidemiological perspectives of objectivism and constructivism.

  37. Chapter 1: Introduction to Learning Theory and Technology
    Chapter 1 begins with identifying the 21st century, a time, which has been largely impacted by networking technologies, as the Knowledge Age. The first few pages address the main issue the entire book aims to uncover, Learning Theory and Online Technologies, it “addresses the need for a theory of learning for 21st century realities and presents educators with new ways of thinking about teaching and learning using online technologies.”(p.3) It also gives a brief overview about the organization of the book, to present some direction for the reader.
    The rest of the chapter reviews forms of learning from a theoretical perspective, beginning by breaking down what a learning theory is, a theory is an explanation for “why something occurs or how it occurs”. Therefor, a learning theory “aims to help us to understand how people learn.”(p.4) Most importantly, the chapter illuminates on epistemology, A term that is the philosophy of knowledge or of how we come to know. The chapter then breaks down the three types of epistemology that we will reflect upon for the rest of the course: Metaphysical, objective and constructive epistemology and relates a learning theory to each type of knowledge.

  38. Chapter one addresses he learning theories of the 20th and the 21st century, with an emphasis on today’s challenges in education in the world that is increasingly becoming online. This introductory chapter clearly outlines that there is a need for a new learning theory for the 21st century by incorporating new ways of thinking and new technologies together. The leading theory, known as the Online Collaborative Learning theory (OCL), is explained, with all the challenges it faces in today’s classrooms that remarkably resemble those of the 20th century, with a minor change of using the Internet for carrying out mundane or non crucial activities. The chapter also introduces the 3 epistemological perspectives of metaphysical, objectivism, and constructivism, which are the core fundamental for the entire notion of learning theories.

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